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Correcting Errors. Chapter 11. Types of Feedback. Types of Feedback . Two types of performance information Task intrinsic feedback (internal) Sources outside the body (exteroception) OR Sources within the body Sensory-perceptual information (vision, proprioceptive, auditory)

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Correcting errors

Correcting Errors

Chapter 11

Types of feedback1
Types of Feedback

  • Two types of performance information

    • Task intrinsic feedback (internal)

      • Sources outside the body (exteroception) OR

      • Sources within the body

        • Sensory-perceptual information (vision, proprioceptive, auditory)

      • Natural part of performing a skill

      • People are able to perceive intrinsic feedback without special assistance from other sources (ie. Instructors or mechanical devices)

    • Augmented feedback (external source)

      • Information provided by an outside source

      • Provided at different times, by a different source or not at all

Intrinsic feedback
Intrinsic Feedback

  • When a patient lifts a cup of coffee to mouth, he

    • Hears the cup leaving the saucer

    • Feels the weight of the cup

    • Sees the coffee ripple

    • Feels the warmth against lips and tongue

  • When a racquetball player hits a shot, she

    • Feels the contact between the racket and ball

    • Sees the ball traveling toward the front wall

    • Hears a ricochet off the side wall

Categories of augmented feedback
Categories of Augmented Feedback

  • Knowledge of results—externally presented information about outcome of performing a skill or about achieving goal of the performance (KR)

    • You buttoned that button in less than five seconds

    • You missed the shot; You have a wrinkle in the tape

  • Knowledge of performance—information about movement characteristics that led to the performance outcome (KP)

    • Looks at the quality of movement: You didn’t lift your knees high enough; Your follow through to the basket had a high goose neck; You had a flat paddle when you struck the balloon.

Kr feedback
KR Feedback

  • KR may be redundant when learners are able to pick up intrinsic feedback on their own

  • How might KR be redundant in the following situations?

    • Playing miniature golf

    • Bowling

    • Walking on a treadmill

    • Feeding an infant

  • KR is only helpful when it provides information performers are not able to obtain on their own

    • Not skilled enough to use intrinsic feedback

    • Can’t see the result of their performance

Kp feedback
KP Feedback

  • More applicable to real-world situations

  • Does not usually indicate anything about the product or goal achievement of the performance

  • What information (KP) might a learner need from an instructor in the following situations?

    • Playing shuffleboard

    • Doing a dive from a diving board

    • Doing squats

    • Walking on a treadmill

Importance of augmented feedback kp
Importance of Augmented Feedback: KP

  • Enhances the task-intrinsic feedback the person can detect

  • Adds information that the person cannot detect using his/her sensory system

    • Amount of teacher feedback given to students significantly correlates to appropriate practice in which students are engaged

Functions of augmented feedback kp
Functions of Augmented Feedback: KP

  • Correction of performance errors

    • Helps the learner achieve the goal more quickly

  • Influences the person’s perception of his/her own ability in a skill (motivation)

  • Improves the chance that the performer will repeat the performance (reinforcement)

Sources of feedback
Sources of Feedback

  • Auditory

  • Visual displays

  • Video replay

  • Biofeedback

Error vs correct feedback
Error vs. Correct Feedback

  • If the goal is to facilitate skill acquisition, provide error-based information

  • If the goal is to confirm progress and/or encourage continued persistence, highlight the correct features of the performance attempt

  • Combination of both would be optimal

Sandwich approach
Sandwich Approach

  • Provide information to reinforce correct performance

  • Provide information regarding error correction

  • Offer encouragement to motivate the learner to incorporate the recommendations provided

Descriptive vs prescriptive
Descriptive vs. Prescriptive

  • Descriptive feedback describes the nature of the performance error made

  • Prescriptive feedback offers a suggestion as to how to correct the problem identified

  • Provision of both descriptive and prescriptive information can assist learners in formulating associations between errors and their corrections

Correcting errors

  • Descriptive and Prescriptive

    • Descriptive simply describes the movement: “You let go of the ball too soon.”

      • More useful for more experienced learners

    • Prescriptive tells a person what to do to correct it: “You need to toss the ball above the height of your extended arm”

      • More useful for beginners or inexperienced learners

Videotape as augmented feedback
Videotape As Augmented Feedback

  • Effectiveness of videotape replays depends on one’s stage of learning

    • Provides learner with a visual depiction of their action

      • Beginners need videotape replays plus assistance from others to point out critical information

      • Advanced players benefit from videotape replays when some form of attention-directing instructions are presented, such as verbal cues or checklists

Biofeedback as augmented feedback
Biofeedback As Augmented Feedback

  • Use of task-intrinsic feedback related to physiological processes (heart rate, muscle activity)

  • HR monitors, pedometers that set a pace based on target speed might be considered tools for biofeedback

  • Because feedback is concurrent, dependency on feedback may occur


  • Have to consider skill level of learner

    • Initial stages of learning: level of precision can be quite general and still be effective

    • Skill refinement: use more precise information provided learner understands its meaning (more prescriptive in nature)

Content of feedback
Content of Feedback

  • Feedback directs attention to a part of the movement

    • Direct attention to a part that will significantly improve the overall movement

      • A learner in the beginner stage may not benefit from precise feedback

      • Only provide error based feedback on movement error large enough to matter


  • An expert is teaching a beginner how to kayak and after several practice sessions, it is apparent that the learner is not responding as enthusiastically to the feedback as previously. What are some reasons this learner may be less motivated by the expert’s feedback?


  • Guidance hypothesis

    • 100% feedback guides the learner, who becomes dependent on augmented feedback

    • Reduced frequency does not create dependency

      • How often should information be given?

Fading technique
Fading Technique

  • Form of feedback in which one systematically reduces KR frequency


  • Give augmented feedback for 50% of the trials

  • Give augmented feedback for 25% of the trials

  • Give augmented feedback for 12% of the trials

  • Give augmented feedback when requested

Summary feedback
Summary Feedback

  • Defined as performance-related augmented feedback after a certain number of trials

    • For example, feedback provided after learner does 5 practice attempts.

    • This method may be more practical when dealing with a large number of learners and you can’t see each learner after each attempt.

Learner regulated
Learner Regulated

  • Practitioner gives the learner augmented feedback only when he/she asks for it

  • Learner self-regulates the presentation of augmented feedback

Practical application
Practical Application

  • A person is helping a friend learn to bowl. What are some things the person might look for in the friend’s performance that would help determine when to begin reducing the frequency of the feedback?

So should feedback be given
So, should feedback be given?

  • Practitioners must determine whether feedback is redundant

  • Also,

    • Complexity of the task

    • Experience of the learner

      • One purpose of feedback is to motivate learner to want to produce effective movement

      • Another purpose of feedback is to help learner understand how to develop, understand, and use intrinsic feedback

During or after movement
During or after movement?

  • Concurrent Feedback

    • Feedback that is given during the movement

    • Could be used during a closed loop movement

    • May compromise attention allocation availability

  • Terminal Feedback

    • Feedback that is given after the movement

    • Could be used during an open loop movement

      • Also better used for beginners: attentional demands must be considered

Timing when should feedback be given
Timing: When should feedback be given?

Performance -- Feedback Delay ------- Provision of -------- Post Feedback --Performance

Attempt #1 Interval Augmented Feedback Interval Attempt #2

|------------------------------------ Inter-response Interval ------------------------------|

Feedback delay interval
Feedback-Delay Interval

  • What happens in the time interval between performance and feedback?

    • Time from one performance attempt until feedback is provided

    • Give learners the opportunity to process intrinsic feedback before providing feedback

    • Prompting learners to estimate performance errors before giving feedback benefits learning

Post feedback interval
Post-Feedback Interval

  • What happens after feedback is given?

    • Time from the provision of augmented feedback to the initiation of the next performance attempt

    • Give sufficient time for learner to process and plan

    • May want to remind learners to engage in processing activities: What activities might be encouraged?

    • What can this do for the GMP?

Review questions
Review Questions

  • What are the functions of feedback?

  • When should error based feedback be provided vs. when should correct feedback be provided?

  • Besides verbal feedback from an external source, what other sources of feedback might be used? Provide suggestions for the appropriate provision of such feedback.

  • How frequently during practice should the learner receive feedback? Provide examples of the various techniques.

  • Why don’t you want to immediately provide feedback after a learner has completed a practice attempt?

  • What should occur in the time interval between the learner receiving feedback and the next practice attempt?