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Charlemagne and the Origins of Christendom. Charlemagne and the Origins of Christendom. I. Europe during the Time of the Muslim Expansion II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages. I. Europe during the Time of the Muslim Expansion. A. Decline and Isolation

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charlemagne and the origins of christendom1
Charlemagne and the Origins of Christendom
  • I. Europe during the Time of the Muslim Expansion
  • II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
i europe during the time of the muslim expansion
I. Europe during the Time of the Muslim Expansion
  • A. Decline and Isolation
  • 1. Decline of Trade and Industry
  • a. How would one conduct long-distance trade at this time?
  • b. Vikings (“nomads of the sea”) as response
  • 2. Decline of Culture and Learning
  • a. Did Charles Martel save “Western civilization” at the Battle of Tours in 732?
  • b. Baptistry at Poitiers
  • 3. Dissolution of Centralized Government
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • A. Manorial Self-Sufficiency
  • 1. Estates: Division by Function
  • a. 1st Estate: Those Who Pray (clergy)
  • b. 2nd Estate: Those Who Fight (nobility)
  • c. 3rd Estate: Those Who Work (peasants)
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages1
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • B. Feudalism — A Stage in Every Nation’s Development or Historiographic Ghost?
  • 1. Standard Textbook View
  • 2. Use of the Term by Researchers
roland pledges his fealty to charlemagne
Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne

from a manuscript of a chanson de geste, c.14th.c.(?)

ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages2
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • B. Feudalism — A Stage in Every Nation’s Development or Historiographic Ghost?
  • 3. Question about Its Origins
  • a. Montesquieu (18th cent.) — German tribal comitatus
  • b. George Waitz (1880s) — Roman clientage and patronage
  • c. Heinrich Brunner (1890s) — fusion of comitatus and clientage
  • d. Lynn White (1964) — importance of stirrup
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages3
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • B. Feudalism — A Stage in Every Nation’s Development or Historiographic Ghost?
  • 4. Another Possibility — Muslim iqtā‛
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages4
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • C. Charlemagne (768–814)
  • 1. Political Significance
  • a. Crowned Roman Emperor in the West—“Holy Roman Empire”
  • b. Impact on Western institutions?
  • c. Lands divided among grandsons—Treaty of Verdun (843)
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages5
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • C. Charlemagne (768–814)
  • 2. Education and the Revival of Learning
  • a. Alcuin of York (735–804)
  • b. Trivium (represents argument)
  • Grammar
  • Rhetoric—“the open fist”
  • Logic—“the shut fist”
carolingian manuscript fuldense ca 831 40
Carolingian manuscript, Fuldense, ca. 831/40

Raban Maur (left) supported by Alcuin (middle) dedicates his work to Archbishop Otgar of Mainz

ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages6
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • C. Charlemagne (768–814)
  • 2. Education and the Revival of Learning
  • c. Quadrivium (represents mathematics)
  • Arithmetic—numbers in themselves
  • Geometry—numbers having taken form
  • Astronomy—numbers in motion
  • Music—numbers in relationship to each other
ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages7
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • C. Charlemagne (768–814)
  • 3. Carolingian Renaissance (Aachen [Aix-la-Chapelle])
  • a. Miniscule—Preservation of Ancient Latin Texts
  • b. Einhard—The Life of Charlemagne
carolingian gospel book written in miniscule
Carolingian Gospel book written in miniscule

British Library, MS Add. 11848

ii political social and economic relations in the middle ages8
II. Political, Social, and Economic Relations in the Middle Ages
  • D. The End of the Millennium? The Year 1000.
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