Welcome to English Language 18/7/2019 Paul Ferguson
How To Use: Some, Any, Much, Many, Little, Few Some, any, much, many, few and little are all words that come before nouns to help explain them. Some and any are both “determiners” – they tell us whether the noun phrase is general or specific. Some and any are both “general determiners”, which means they refer to an indefinite or unknown quantity of something. Much, many, few and little are all “quantifiers”. Quantifiers are used to give information about quantity (the number of something). Both much and many suggest a large quantity of something, whilst little and few mean: not as much, or not as many. However, if you use a little or a few this means: a small amount! But how do we know when to use each word? Broadly speaking, the rules for using these terms are based on whether the noun we are referring to is countable, uncountable, plural vs. singular OR whether they appear in positive or negative sentences or questions. Be careful because each set of words has its own particular rules and exceptions! Let’s take a closer look…
Some / any The words some and any are used when the exact number or amount of something is not known, or when it’s not important. Some and any are both used to refer to an indefinite quantity or number. Example: There are some birds in our garden.(We don’t know exactly how many birds are in the garden or it doesn’t matter how many birds there are exactly) As opposed to: There are three birds in our garden.(The number of birds is important and exact)
Some and any are known as “general determiners”. They are used to modify nouns, specifically to tell us that the noun phrase is general (rather than specific). Countable or uncountable nouns:We don’t have any time to get popcorn before the film starts.(Time is uncountable)We still have some apples on the tree. (Apples are countable) Singular or plural nouns:We don’t have any chicken left for dinner. (Chicken is singular)It’s such nice weather! Let’s invite some friends round for a BBQ. (Friends is plural)
When do I use someand when do I use any? Although some and any are both used to describe an indefinite number, they are used in different ways. So how do we use them correctly? In general, some is used in positive sentences (that don’t contain the word ‘not’): • I would love to try some of that food! • I have bought some strawberries. • Let’s invite some friends round tonight! • Some people think it is better to exercise a lot.
Any is used in negative sentences (that contain the word ‘not’): 1 We do not have any space left in the car.2 I do not need any help with my homework. 3 There is not any milk in the fridge. 4 I am not hungry so I do not want anything to eat. And in questions: 1 Have you got any idea how long the film lasts?2 Do you have any brothers or sisters?3 Is there any salt and pepper?4 Do you have any plans for the summer?
There are some exceptions to these rules. We can use some in questions when offering something or making requests: 1 Would you like some milk in your tea?2 Can I get you something to drink?3 Shall we invite some friends round?4 Can I borrow some money? We use any in positive sentences when we mean “it doesn’t matter which…”: 1 You can sit anywhere you like.2 You can play any song.3 Choose any pair of shoes.4 I will take any of them!
Much / Many Much and many are known as “quantifiers”. They are used to talk about quantities, amounts or degrees (along with ‘a lot of’ and ‘lots of’) and suggest a large quantity of something. 1 There are not many doctors in the hospital today. (doctors are countable)2 Many people choose to retire in Spain. (People are countable)3 There is not much light in this room. (light is uncountable)4 Too much money was spent on the wedding. (money is uncountable)
English Phrasal Verbs With Bring 16 common phrasal verbs with ‘bring’. Learn their many meanings, explore real native examples of phrasal verbs in context/ Bring about Bring along Bring around Bring away Bring back Bring down Bring forth Bring forward Bring in Bring off Bring on Bring out Bring over Bring round Bring to Bring up
1. BRING ABOUT Cause something to happenGovernment investment in infrastructure brought about huge changes to society.Social media has brought about big changes in how children interact. 2. BRING ALONG Take someone or something with you when you go somewhere“Is it ok if I bring along a friend to the party?” – “Sure, everyone is welcome!”I brought along my camera to the museum in case I wanted to take some photos. 3. BRING AROUND Change someone’s view or opinionAt first she didn’t agree that exercise was important but I managed to bring her around to my opinion. Bring something with you when you visitI’ll bring around a bottle of wine when I come over later. Make someone conscious after being unconsciousHe fainted so we splashed cold water on his face to bring him around.
4. BRING AWAY Learn or gain something valuable, often through experienceI brought away a lot from my cooking classes. 5. BRING BACK To return somethingMy clock stopped working so I brought it back to the shop. Think about memories/feelings from the pastThose photos bring back memories of our holidays in Spain. Reintroduce something from pastIt would be a very bad idea to bring back slavery. Re-employThey’re bringing back their old football manager in the hope that he can turn their season around. Save someone’s life when they almost diedHis heart stopped but they managed to bring him back. Talk about something you’ve already spoken aboutThat brings us back to our original point: We need to regulate guns.
6. BRING DOWN Fall/collapseNo one knows what brought down the Malaysian airplane in 2014. Topple/overturn a governmentThe government was brought down by the corruption scandal. Make someone feel bad emotionallyDavid is so negative, he always brings down my mood. To reduce something/make it lowerThe Prime Minister’s aim was to bring down unemployment by half. 7. BRING FORTH (old/formal) Cause something to happen/to create or generate somethingHer complaint brought forth changes to the company’s policies. To produce somethingThe old trees in the garden brought forth apples and pears each year. To give birth to (old-fashioned)She brought forth four sons and one daughter.
8. BRING FORWARD Change the date or time of an event so that it happens earlierThey brought forward the meeting to 11am as they had another appointment in the afternoon. Announce a plan or proposal so people can consider itThe Ministry of Defense will bring forward their budget next week. 9. BRING IN Use skills of a particular group or person, invite them into an organisation or jobWe brought in a marketing expert for the campaign launch. To make or earn moneyWith my main job and my freelance work I bring in around £40,000 a year. To introduce a new law or systemIn 2015 the new tax law was brought in throughout the country. To involve someone new in a discussion or conversation you’re havingAt this point I’d like to bring in my colleague Anna, who has some interesting information on this issue.
10. BRING OFF Succeed at something that is difficultIt was a very difficult presentation but she brought it off.If he can bring off this deal he’ll be a very rich man. 11. BRING ON Cause something to happen/appear (often related to an illness, pain etc.)Jane’s illness was brought on by stress. Bring something on Confidence in meeting a challenge“Bet I can run up that hill faster than you.”“Bring it on!” 12. BRING OUT Produce a new productToyota brought out a new, environmentally-friendly car this year. To stress, highlight or reveal somethingThat colour really brings out your blue eyes.He was such a great teacher that he always brought out the best in his students. To publish somethingWhen are you bringing out your new book?
13. BRING OVER Physically take someone or something from one place to another, especially someone’s homeShe’s going to bring over a film on DVD this evening.David is br 14. BRING ROUND Regain consciousness (in particular after someone faints)We were worried it was more serious, but the doctors managed to bring her round. Convince or change someone’s opinion or point of viewHe didn’t believe in gun control, but we discussed it and managed to bring him round. To come to someone’s home with somethingCould you bring round some wine when you come for dinner tonight?
15. BRING TO Make someone regain consciousnessAfter she fainted, the doctors brought her to. Cause a ship/vessel to stopWe’re approaching the harbor so let’s bring the boat to. 16. BRING UP To mention a topic or subject in a conversationDon’t bring up that topic with Sarah or she’ll get annoyed. To raise children or animals, the place someone was raisedShe brought up three children all on her own.I was brought up in London.