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QoS Roaming with 1xEV-DO Rev. A

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  1. QoS Roaming with1xEV-DO Rev. A IRT Macau, March 2007

  2. 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts • Walkthrough of QoS Setup • Example of Flows • Roaming Issues

  3. QoS Application Categories • The majority of wireless applications can be divided into three major categories: • Expedited Forwarding – Delay-sensitive (e.g., VoIP, VT-audio) • Assured Forwarding– Rate-sensitive (e.g., Video streaming) • Best Effort– Delay-tolerant (e.g., FTP, HTTP) • 3GPP2 further classifies the categories as: • Conversational, Interactive, Streaming, and/or Push-to-X • Which are further classified by applications: • Video, Audio, Speech, Signaling, Text, and Gaming The above classification is similar to the taxonomy listed in C.R1001-E (TSB-58E).

  4. QoS Application Categories • Four main criteria are generally used to define the behavior of a QoS application: • Delay (Latency): Maximum allowable delay between sending the packet from one end point and reception of that packet at the far end point. • Jitter: The variance of inter-arrival delay from one packet to the next packet within the same IP flow/stream. • Reliability (PER): The number of packets that are in error out of the total number of packets transmitted. • Target Throughput: The minimum required throughput for a flow. The above classification is similar to the taxonomy listed in C.R1001-E (TSB-58E).

  5. QoS Flow Profile IDs • Flow Profile ID • Identifies a flow profile specifying the air interface parameters needed to support a particular type of IP flow. These include: • Determines the parameters for RLP and RTCMAC flows • Defined in 3GPP2 C.R1001 (TSB-58) • 0 (default) is defined as Best Effort (BE) • 0 – 16,383: standard FlowProfileIDs • 16,384 – 32,767: proprietary FlowProfileIDs

  6. Standard Flow Profiles for Audio/Speech

  7. Standard Flow Profiles for Video, Texting, and Gaming

  8. Standard Flow Profiles for Signaling

  9. Flows in 1xEV-DO Rev A. QoS Architecture • Flows allow for QoS from the application to the air interface: • IP Flows (Application Flows) – data streams generated by an application • At the OSI application layer, residing outside the 1xEV-DO protocol stack • RLP Flows –reside at the 1xEV-DO application layer • Use either Multi-flow Packet Application (MFPA) or Enhanced MFPA (EMPA) • These flows can be mapped back to the upper layer IP flows • FTCMAC and RTCMAC Flows – reside at the 1xEV-DO MAC layer • RTCMAC Subtype 3 allows for prioritization of each RLP flow on the reverse link • QoS aware scheduler provides QoS handling all RLP flows on FTCMAC • These flows can be associated to the upper layer RLP flows • Applications at the AT may require multiple instances of these flows • E.g. VT may require Control, Audio, and Video flows in each direction

  10. IP-RLP-RTCMAC Flow Mapping

  11. Interaction Between Flows CRX Payload Payload IP Header IP Header PDSN AN RLP NN1 IP Flow KK1 RLP NN1 IP Flow KK1 RTCMAC 01 Stream Substream NN1 TFT Reverse IP Flow KK1 Aux A10 Packet Filter RLP NN2 IP Flow KK2 FTCMAC RLP NN2 IP Flow KK2 Forward IP Flow KK2

  12. 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts • Walkthrough of QoS Setup • Example of Flows • Roaming Issues

  13. Subscriber QoS Profile AAA PDSN AN • Subscriber QoS Profile • Subscriber’s HAAA provides it to the PDSN after packet data authentication • PDSN stores it and forwards relevant portion to the AN • It allows the AN to authorize QoS requests received from the AT PPP negotiation Access Request Access Accept Subscriber QoS Profile: - Max. authorized aggregate bandwidth for BE traffic - Authorized Flow Profile IDs - Max. per flow priority - Service Option profile - Inter-user priority for BE traffic - Allowed # of persistent TFTs - Allowed DSCP markings A11 Session Update Subscriber QoS Profile: - Max. authorized aggregate bandwidth for BE traffic - Authorized Flow Profile IDs - Max. per flow priority - Service Option profile - Inter-user priority for BE traffic

  14. Reservation Labels & Requesting QoS AAA PDSN AN A separateReservationKKQoSRequestFwd/Rev attribute is included for each IP flow being setup. Each ReservationKKQoSRequest includes: - AttributeID – contains reservation label (KK) - R_QoS_SUB_BLOB – contains requested Flow Profile ID(s) for that flow ReservationKKQoS attributes are defined in C.S0024. QoS SUB BLOBS are defined in X.S0011-004. • AT identifies and requests Flow Profile IDs for each IP flow • Reservation Labels are used to identify IP flows • AT selects Reservation Labels for each IP flow (forward and reverse flows) • AT selects one or more desired Flow Profile IDs for each flow • AT uses GAUP to send these reservation labels and Flow Profile IDs to AN • AttributeUpdateRequest • ReservationKKQoSRequestFwd • - Reservation Label • - Requested Flow Profile ID(s) • ReservationKKQoSRequestRev • - Reservation Label • - Requested Flow Profile ID(s) • Additional requests • :

  15. QoS Authorization & Granting Flow Profile IDs AAA PDSN AN ReservationKKQoSResponseFwd/Rev attributes are included for each requested IP flow. Each ReservationKKQoSResponse includes: - AttributeID – contains the reservation label (KK) - G_QoS_SUB_BLOB – contains the granted Flow Profile ID for that flow • AttributeUpdateRequest • ReservationKKQoSResponseFwd • - Reservation Label • - Granted Flow Profile ID(s) • ReservationKKQoSResponseRev • - Reservation Label • - Granted Flow Profile ID(s) • Additional responses • : • AN authorizes and grants a Flow Profile ID for each IP flow • AN uses subscriber QoS profile info to authorize Flow Profile ID requests • AN determines what Flow Profile ID it will grant for each request • AN uses GAUP to provide these granted Flow Profile IDs to AT

  16. Radio Link Protocol (RLP) Flows AAA PDSN AN All FlowNN attributes include an AttributeID field that contains the RLP flow number (NN). An RLPID identifies the RLP flow and is not the RLP flow number (NN). RLPIDs allow MFPA to identify activated RLP flows without using prefixes. Each active RLP flow is associated with an A10. FlowNN attributes are defined in C.S0024. • AttributeUpdateRequest • FlowNNIdentificationFwd/Rev • - RLPID • FlowNNTimersFwd/Rev • - Abort and Flush Timers • FlowNNReservationFwd/Rev • - Reservation Label • Attributes for additional flows • : • AN sets up RLP flows • AN uses GAUP and initiates setup of RLP flows based pre-configured RLP flow to QoS Flow Profile ID configuration, activation, and mapping • RLP flow parameters are negotiated between AN and AT • Reservation labels are used to map one or more IP flows to each RLP flow

  17. Reverse Traffic Channel MAC (RTCMAC) Flows AAA PDSN All attributes include an AttributeID field that contains the RTCMAC flow number (NN). (Note: The RTCMAC flow number NN should not be confused with RLP flow number NN.) Setting the bucket_levl_maxNN to a non-zero value activates an RTCMAC flow Configuration attributes may include: - MergeThresholdNN - TransmissionModeNN - BucketFactorNN - T2PInflowRangeNN - T2PTransFuncNN AN • AttributeUpdateRequest • BucketLevelMaxNN • - bucket_levl_maxNN > 0 • Configuration attributes • AssociatedFlowsNN • - Stream = stream number • - Substream = RLP flow NN • Attributes for additional flows • : • AN sets up RTCMAC flows • AN uses GAUP and initiates setup of RTCMAC flows based pre-configured RTCMAC to RLP flow associations, configuration parameters, and activation • Streamfield associates the RTCMAC flow with the application bound to that stream value during session negotiation • Substream field is the RLP Flow NN to be bound to the RTCMAC flow

  18. Traffic Flow Templates (TFTs) AAA PDSN RSVP ResvMessage and 3GPP2 OBJECTare defined in X.S0011-004 A10 connections: - PPP and best effort flows carried on the main A10 - Auxiliary A10s used for additional IP flows. - Each A10 may carry one or more IP flow. Packet Filters may include: - Reservation Label - Source or Dest IP Address - Source or Dest Port - Protocol /Next header - IPSec SPI - TOS / Traffic Class - Type 2 Routing Header - Home Address Option AN RSVP Resv Message with 3GPP2 OBJECT TFT IPv4 or IPv6 IE. Forward Link. Create or Add filters to TFT. Packet filter(s): Reservation Label, Transport Protocol, Dest Port, etc… TFT IPv4 or IPv6 IE. Reverse Link. Create or Add filters to TFT. Packet filter(s):Reservation Label, Transport Protocol, Source Port, etc… Additional TFT IEs : • AT sets up Packet Filters at the PDSN • Packet Filters are used to convey: • A10  IP flow mapping • IP layer QoS parameters • Packets treatment, including DSCP markings • Multiple Filters may be included in a single TFT IE

  19. Review • Quick review : • Subscriber’s QoS Profile information was retrieved for QoS authorization • Reservation Labels and Flow Profile IDs were assigned to each IP flow • RLP Flows associated with A10 connections were activated • Reservation Labels were used to setup IP flow  RLP flow mapping • RTCMAC Flows were activated and bound to Applications and RLP Flows • Packet Filters were setup at the PDSN for A10  IP flow mapping

  20. 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts • Walkthrough of QoS Setup • Example of Flows • Roaming Issues

  21. Example Flows used in a VT Application CRX Payload Payload IP Header IP Header PDSN AN RLP 05 Control (95) RLP 05 Control (95) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 05 TFT Control Rev IP Flow 95 Aux A10 Control Control Filter FTCMAC Control RLP 11 Control (94) RLP 11 Control (94) Control Fwd IP Flow 94

  22. Example Flows used in a VT Application CRX PDSN AN RLP 05 Control (95) RLP 05 Control (95) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 05 TFT Control Rev IP Flow 95 Aux A10 Control RLP 06 Audio (97) RLP 06 Audio (97) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 06 Control Filter Payload IP Header Audio Rev IP Flow 97 IP Header Payload Aux A10 Audio Payload IP Header Audio Filter RLP 11 Control (94) RLP 11 Control (94) IP Header Payload Control Fwd IP Flow 94 FTCMAC Control Audio RLP 12 Audio (96) RLP 12 Audio (96) Audio Fwd IP Flow 96

  23. Example Flows used in a VT Application CRX Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload Payload IP Header IP Header IP Header IP Header IP Header IP Header PDSN AN RLP 05 Control (95) RLP 05 Control (95) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 05 TFT Control Rev IP Flow 95 Aux A10 Control RLP 06 Audio (97) RLP 06 Audio (97) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 06 Control Filter Audio Rev IP Flow 97 RLP 07 Video (99) RLP 07 Video (99) RTCMAC 01 Packet App RLP 07 Video Rev IP Flow 99 Aux A10 Audio Audio Filter RLP 11 Control (94) RLP 11 Control (94) Control Fwd IP Flow 94 RLP 12 Audio (96) RLP 12 Audio (96) FTCMAC Control Audio Video Aux A10 Video Audio Fwd IP Flow 96 Video Filter RLP 13 Video (98) RLP 13 Video (98) Video Fwd IP Flow 98

  24. 1xEV-DO Rev. A QoS Concepts • Walkthrough of QoS Setup • Example of Flows • Roaming Issues

  25. Roaming Issues: QoS Flow Profiles • QoS Flow Profiles • What Flow Profile IDs do your QoS applications support? • What Flow Profile IDs do your partner’s applications support? • How will your QoS applications respond if requested Flow Profiles IDs are not available in a visited network? • Application proceeds using Best Effort traffic? • User is informed that the application in not available in that network? • What is the mechanism for synchronizing Flow Profile IDs with partners • Technical Data Sheets? • Do you allow for VERBOSE negotiation of Flow Profile parameters instead of using Flow Profile IDs

  26. Roaming Issues: End-to-End QoS CRX Ethernet PDSN Access Network BSC/PCF BTS PPP Core Backbone Backhaul 1xEV-DO Rev A • QoS Flow Profiles • Multiple RLP flows • Multiple RTCMAC flows • Proprietary • E.g. Diffserv using RTCMAC Flow NN • Auxiliary A10s • DiffServ using DSCP markings in TFT packet filters Core Backbone Backhaul 1xEV-DO Rev A • QoS Flow Profiles • Multiple RLP flows • QoS aware scheduler • Proprietary • E.g. Diffserv using scheduler ID • Auxiliary A10s • DiffServ using DSCP markings in TFT packet filters

  27. Roaming Issues: End-to-End QoS • QoS in the Core (i.e. between networks) • How is QoS supported between the visited and home networks for QoS applications that terminate back to the home network? • Will your applications specify DSCP markings in the TFT packet filters sent to visited PDSNs? • How will the CRX interconnect network support these DSCP markings? • Will your PDSNs support DSCP markings provided by roamers? • What about inter-carrier, non-roaming scenario?

  28. Bryan Gurganus • bryang@qualcomm.com • +1 858 651 2832 • Questions?