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Some Aspects of Islamic Cosmology and the current state of Physics. Shahidan Radiman School of Applied Physics Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Int. Conf. on Mathematical Sc. 29 Nov.2007. Islamic Cosmology (with main work by Kalam cosmologists and Mir Damad).
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School of Applied Physics
Faculty of Science and Technology
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Int. Conf. on Mathematical Sc. 29 Nov.2007
1. The argument for the temporality of the world is part of a whole theory of natural philosophy that Kalam cosmologists tried to construct under the heading of Daqiq al-Kalam which discusses the properties of nature as compared to Jalil al-Kalam which discusses Divine attributes and metaphysics.
A Gnostic philosopher arguing that activity of the minds makes possible spiritual vision while visionary experience gives rise to rational thoughts.
Born in Astarabad but grew up in Mashhad. Studied in Qazwin and Kashan before coming to Isfahan.
He is also a mystic and jurist.
His kitab al Qabasat is well studied in modern times by Majid Fakhry , M.M Watt and O. Leaman , Hamid Dabashi , Henri Corbin and S.Ashtiyani.
- Musawi Bihbahani in introduction to 1977 edition of Kitab al Qabasat (Book of Embers) of Mir Damad ( written presumably before 1631).
1. Damad formulated his doctrine opf real origination in dahr , a theory implying a rupture or dislocation(or hiatus) of being between God and the world.
2.Damad has made a real departure from Ibn Sina for whom normally huduth means origination in time, which Damad thinks is actually imkan.
3. Dahr then , means the world of pure time where origination or “eventuality” remains WITHOUT the extension of time.
In quantum cosmogeny gravitational instanton gives rise to Lorentzian signature spacetime by analytic continuation across minimal hypersurfaces. This continuation can be interpreted either as quantum tunnelling or creation of the Universe from nothing (ex nihilo). Weighting on gravitational action SE can serve as a method of selecting a vacuum from the landscape of string vacua.
Space: Space might not be infinitely divisible. It may have a quantum granularity at the Planck scale , (hG/c3)1/2 = 10 -35 m analogous to the granularity of energy in a quantum oscillator. This granularity of space is fully realised in loop quantum gravity theory and there are hints of it also in string theory. This is the current state of Atomism!
Connes and Rovelli in fact define time in quantum gravity by using thermodynamics and using the Tomita-Tasesaki theorem cook up a Hamiltonian (hence a notion of time evolution) from a state of quantum system!
Near Planckscale (10-35 m) , ground state graviton constantly stretch and squash the geometry of space-time causing conformal fluctuation in space-time. Information on gravitons near Planckscale can be extracted by observing this fluctuations by analysing blurring effects (decoherence) on coherent matter waves. This decoherence can be seen by neutrons (first proposed by Ellis et al , 1984)
In the framework of inflation , scales which nowadays corresponds to large scale structures were smaller than the Planck length at the beginning of inflation. Therefore, measurements of CMBR anisotropy or surveys of galaxies and clusters of galaxies could help us probe physics beyond the Planck scale.
This Planckscale physics is the footprint of the “atom” of existence ( space and time).
Horizon/Hubble radius in SBB
Hubble radius during inflation
Physical scale size k-1
Dispersion relation with saturation: two branches
String space-time uncertainty
Idealist philosophy believes that the mind exists, and that our sense of the external world (physical reality) is simply a construction of the mind. Given that all our knowledge is in fact a creation of the mind (imagination) it has been difficult to refute this - to get from our ideas of things to the real thing in itself .
Realism: Atomism is an example of near realism. Mathematical realism consists in considering that the concepts that truly fits Reality are of a mathematical nature. A corollary to realism is counterfactuality ( very important in quantum theory).
I have not been able to find direct discussion of Mind-Independent reality discussed by Muslim philosophers.
As for Causality , much has been discussed especially that of Al-Ghazali and I will not repeat it here.
2. Ontologically interpretable models:
They are “non-std models” –reproducing observational predictions of conventional quantum theory but fully expressed in strongly objective terms. Some are undeterministic while some like Broglie-Bohm model are deterministic.
I have briefly discussed the relevance of Mir Damad’s theory with current understanding of Big Bang cosmology and also the concept of atom as understood by Mutakallimun as compared to current physics understanding of what is at the Planckscale.
It would be interesting to connect many of the earlier theories of Islamic philosophers with the current understanding of modern physics on the nature of the Universe.
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