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Regional VP (Special) Conference: Nov 2013. The Six Stages of a Crisis: The importance of stage 6 Post Incident Learning (PIL). Colin Campbell. Asst. Advisory Officer, BST, SEELB Joe Duffy, Senior Ed. Psychologist, SEELB/QUB 22/11/13. Time.

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the six stages of a crisis the importance of stage 6 post incident learning pil

Regional VP (Special) Conference: Nov 2013

The Six Stages of a Crisis: The importance of stage 6 Post Incident Learning (PIL)

Colin Campbell. Asst. Advisory Officer, BST, SEELB

Joe Duffy, Senior Ed. Psychologist, SEELB/QUB

22/11/13

slide2

Time

Six Stages of a Crisis

Adapted from Kapler and Wheelan 1980

Crisis

Defensive / Escalation

Possible need for Restrictive Physical Intervention appropriate for the service user

Recovery

Anxiety / Trigger

Depression

Follow Up

Need for coordinated letting go. Support, reassurance

Need for diversion, reassurance, clear limits, boundaries and choices

Need for observation, support and monitoring - recovery and repair

Need for positive listening and learning

Need for diversion, support and reassurance

Risk Restraint Reduction

Risk Restraint Reduction

CORE

stage six of a crisis
Stage six of a crisis

The objective of Stage 6 of the Stages of a Crisisisforthechild tounderstandthatthereasonwhystaffsometimesneedto

hold themisbecausetheycareabout

them.

This will involve staff listening to the child, linking their feelings to their behaviours and giving them the opportunity to learn from what they have done

slide4

Post Incident Support.

Positive Listening and Learning.

CORE

outcomes of a crisis
Outcomes of a Crisis

CRISIS

Staff – Child/Client

Relationship Damaged

Staff – Child/Client

Relationship Unchanged

Staff – Child/Client

Relationship Improved

CORE

why three ls
Why Three Ls?
  • Listen
    • What happened?
  • Link
    • How did that make you feel?
  • Learn
    • The next time you feel that way what could you do?
w hy three ls
Why Three Ls?
  • Listen
    • To the child’s view first
  • Link
    • Feelings to behaviours
  • Learn
    • Find better ways for next time

CORE

slide8

Conflict Spiral

CONFLICT

Reactions

Learn

Behaviours

Link

Feelings

Listen

Experiences

pil tell
PIL - TELL

ime

Cannot rush it – only when they are ready

nvironment

Comfortable and private

isten

Hear the individual’s view first

earn

Find better ways for next time

T

E

L

L

pil help
PIL - HELP

H

ear

To their side of the story first

xplain

Why staff took the action they did

ink

To show how feelings drive behaviour

lan

Together to find better ways

E

L

P

three ls
Three Ls

LISTEN LINK LEARN

Communication Recognising Learning

style feelings style

slide13

Any info regarding situation e.g. triggers:

What we did to rebuild our relationship

Pupil: ______________________

Staff: ______________________

Date: ______________________

slide14

Comic strip

Me

I felt…

This happened…

If I feel like this again

I will…

Pupil: ______________

Staff: ______________

Date: ______________

slide15

When I was feeling sad or angry

I showed this by ____________________

This was because ____________________

If I feel like this again I will

_________________________ (strategy to de-escalate)

To help others know and to help make

me happy

Pupil: ______________________

Staff: ______________________

Date: ______________________

slide16

Behaviour

Feelings

ExperiencesE

Experiences

what does the research say 1
What does the research say? [1]

The impact of training staff in special schools in safe handling:

  • In one study involving 4 schools, all schools saw a reduction in physical interventions post training. One school however witnessed more significant reduction Why?
  • pupils were given the opportunity for listening & learning following incidents;
  • the school had a dedicated staff member with overall responsibility for behaviour management;
  • the entire staff was trained.

Source: www.team-teach.co.uk/casestudies/SEBDA_Article.pdf

what does the research say 2
What does the research say? [2]

Perkins & Leadbetter (2002) in an evaluative study of aggression training management in a special school found that, following training, the lack of supporting action by the school was identified as key inhibiting factor. They recommended:

  • the development of systems for auditing behaviour & assessing its

underlying function [see next slide];

  • ensuring that IEPs contain a behavioural management component
  • clear management support & leadership;
  • supporting staff through formal review of practice ( e.g. debriefing)
assessing the function of behaviour
Assessing the function of behaviour

In relation to pupils with SLD functional assessment has been identified as a factor which is able to improve the efficacy of numerous treatments (Hasting & Noone, 2005)

slide20

The Process for Staff Support?

Module Eight:

  • After a crisis staff need support during the recovery period.
  • A member of staff usually requires:- support, space, reassurance & guidance.
  • As with the child, as soon as possible after the incident.
  • Support meeting with staff(s) involved & line manager.
objectives of the process for staff
Objectives of the Process for Staff
  • Discuss what happened in a non-blaming, supportive, caring manner.
  • Use crisis situation to clarify underlying causes, issues and feelings.
  • Examine what techniques were used to de-escalate and/or physically manage the situation.
  • Develop a strategy for the next time the child/client begins to lose control.
  • All items discussed concerning professional practice issues should be documented
references
References

Cotton, D. (2012). What communication strategies can be used to support the mental health of children with classical autism? Kidderminster: BILD

Perkins, J. & Leadbetter, D. (2002) An evaluation of

aggression management training in a special educational

setting. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 7, (1), 19-34

Hastings, R.P. & Noone, S.J. (2005) Self-injurious behaviour

& functional analysis: ethics & evidence. Education &

Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, (4), 335 -342