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PROJECTS ARE DUE FEBRUARY 23rd HOMEWORK REVIEW
THE FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONSHIP Chromosome Gene Message Product (DNA) (mRNA) (protein)
GENETIC CODE the program for the cell
DNA(de-oxy-ribo-nucleic acid)a nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation to the next
aka…. DNA is the mackdaddy without DNA we would have no way to store genetic information!!!
Big Players in DNA • Chargaff • Rosalind Franklin • Watson and Crick
People knew that DNA was made up of: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)
Erwin Chargaff • Discovered that in any sample of DNA, the amount of A equals the amount of T and the amount of C equals the amount of G. • This suggested that A binds with T and that C binds with G.
Rosalind Franklin’sX-Ray Crystallography • Took x-ray photographs of crystallized DNA • Discovered that the shape of DNA must be a helix, because of the x-ray pattern • Died of cancer (too many x-rays?)
Watson and Crick • Credited for discovering the structure of DNA in 1953 • Used Chargaff and Franklin’s discoveries along with toy models to discover the structure
A 3-D Model of DNA What Shape is this called… Double Helix!!!
NUCLEOTIDES Made up of: • A phosphate group (P,O) • 5 carbon sugar • Nitrogenous Base (either A,T,G,C) The deoxyribose sugar and phosphate group are identical in all DNA nucleotides… nitrogenous bases differ
PURINES • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G)
PYRIMIDINES • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)
Base Pairing in DNA A-T C-G
Write the complementary DNA strand for each of these DNA strands: • DNA • GAATTACA • CCAATTAG • ATAGACAG • CCAGTACA • DNA • CTTAATGT • GGTTAATC • TATCTGTC • GGTCATGT
Each of the 96 columns represents one DNA sequence. A different colored dye attached to each of the four nucleotides.
Replication The act of making an exact copy of DNA
Do Not Copy!!! Semi-Conservative Replication Each strand of the original molecule acts as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary DNA molecule
With semi-conservative replication, each new strand is ½ new and ½ old
WHAT DO WE KNOW NOW • We know how DNA COPIES ITSELF • Why is this important?
RNA(ribo-nucleic acid)a nucleic acid that is a messenger between DNA and the ribosomes
Differences between DNA and RNA • Different sugars (DNA=deoxyribose) (RNA=ribose) • RNA is single stranded (1 side) DNA is double stranded (2sides) • RNA has “U” (uracil) DNA has “T” (thymine)
Always remember… RNAlovesU
Write the RNA strand for each of these DNA strands: • ½ Strand of DNA • GAATTACA • CCAATTAG • ATAGACAG • CCAGTACA • RNA • CUUAAUGU • GGUUAAUC • UAUCUGUC • GGUCAUGU
Transcription The process by which DNA is copied into mRNA
mRNA Messenger RNA, is the copy of the DNA that goes from the nucleus to the ribosome….
Translation The decoding of a mRNA message into proteins
DNA goes to mRNA (messenger RNA) Takes place in nucleus Transcription vs Translation • Messenger RNA is read in the cytoplasm and proteins are made • Done in the cytoplasm not the nucleus
Explain to your parents in the form of a letter with pictures how DNA replicates itself, the process of transcription, and the process of translation • Make sure that your parents can understand what you write and use proper English • Graded for Classwork Grade • Rubric: Daily Assignments Section 5 points • 5 = at least 5 sentences with pictures of each process • 3 = middle of the road job with not much effort • 0 = did not do assignment