homework review n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
HOMEWORK REVIEW PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
HOMEWORK REVIEW

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 68
ifeoma-cash

HOMEWORK REVIEW - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

31 Views
Download Presentation
HOMEWORK REVIEW
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. PROJECTS ARE DUE FEBRUARY 23rd HOMEWORK REVIEW

  2. How DNA is Used by the Cell

  3. THE FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONSHIP Chromosome Gene Message Product (DNA) (mRNA) (protein)

  4. DNAThe Molecular Basis of Life

  5. GENETIC CODE the program for the cell

  6. DNA(de-oxy-ribo-nucleic acid)a nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation to the next

  7. aka…. DNA is the mackdaddy without DNA we would have no way to store genetic information!!!

  8. The Quest for the Structure of DNA

  9. Big Players in DNA • Chargaff • Rosalind Franklin • Watson and Crick

  10. People knew that DNA was made up of: • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)

  11. Erwin Chargaff • Discovered that in any sample of DNA, the amount of A equals the amount of T and the amount of C equals the amount of G. • This suggested that A binds with T and that C binds with G.

  12. Rosalind Franklin’sX-Ray Crystallography • Took x-ray photographs of crystallized DNA • Discovered that the shape of DNA must be a helix, because of the x-ray pattern • Died of cancer (too many x-rays?)

  13. An example of X-Ray Crystallography

  14. Watson and Crick • Credited for discovering the structure of DNA in 1953 • Used Chargaff and Franklin’s discoveries along with toy models to discover the structure

  15. A 3-D Model of DNA What Shape is this called… Double Helix!!!

  16. NUCLEOTIDES Made up of: • A phosphate group (P,O) • 5 carbon sugar • Nitrogenous Base (either A,T,G,C) The deoxyribose sugar and phosphate group are identical in all DNA nucleotides… nitrogenous bases differ

  17. PURINES • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G)

  18. PYRIMIDINES • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)

  19. Base Pairing in DNA A-T C-G

  20. Adenine Nucleotide

  21. Cytosine Nucleotide

  22. Guanine Nucleotide

  23. Here’s What a Nucleotide Looks Like

  24. Write the complementary DNA strand for each of these DNA strands: • DNA • GAATTACA • CCAATTAG • ATAGACAG • CCAGTACA • DNA • CTTAATGT • GGTTAATC • TATCTGTC • GGTCATGT

  25. Each of the 96 columns represents one DNA sequence. A different colored dye attached to each of the four nucleotides.

  26. Replication The act of making an exact copy of DNA

  27. Do Not Copy!!! Semi-Conservative Replication Each strand of the original molecule acts as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary DNA molecule

  28. With semi-conservative replication, each new strand is ½ new and ½ old

  29. Examples of DNA Replication

  30. Helicase is an enzyme that unzips the DNA molecule

  31. WHAT DO WE KNOW NOW • We know how DNA COPIES ITSELF • Why is this important?

  32. Dolly 5 July 1996 14 February 2003

  33. RNA(ribo-nucleic acid)a nucleic acid that is a messenger between DNA and the ribosomes

  34. Differences between DNA and RNA • Different sugars (DNA=deoxyribose) (RNA=ribose) • RNA is single stranded (1 side) DNA is double stranded (2sides) • RNA has “U” (uracil) DNA has “T” (thymine)

  35. Always remember… RNAlovesU

  36. Write the RNA strand for each of these DNA strands: • ½ Strand of DNA • GAATTACA • CCAATTAG • ATAGACAG • CCAGTACA • RNA • CUUAAUGU • GGUUAAUC • UAUCUGUC • GGUCAUGU

  37. Transcription The process by which DNA is copied into mRNA

  38. mRNA Messenger RNA, is the copy of the DNA that goes from the nucleus to the ribosome….

  39. Translation The decoding of a mRNA message into proteins

  40. DNA goes to mRNA (messenger RNA) Takes place in nucleus Transcription vs Translation • Messenger RNA is read in the cytoplasm and proteins are made • Done in the cytoplasm not the nucleus

  41. Explain to your parents in the form of a letter with pictures how DNA replicates itself, the process of transcription, and the process of translation • Make sure that your parents can understand what you write and use proper English • Graded for Classwork Grade • Rubric: Daily Assignments Section 5 points • 5 = at least 5 sentences with pictures of each process • 3 = middle of the road job with not much effort • 0 = did not do assignment