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World War II You need your book today!!. Unit 8. Causes of WWII. Nationalism Imperialism Anger & resentment over the Treaty of Versailles *Germany blamed for WWI *Germany & Russia (now USSR) lost territories following WWI Unstable democratic systems established following WWI

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causes of wwii
Causes of WWII
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Anger & resentment over the Treaty of Versailles

*Germany blamed for WWI

*Germany & Russia (now USSR) lost territories following WWI

  • Unstable democratic systems established following WWI
  • Many Europeans (and Japanese) put their faith in fascist military dictators…
  • Fascism- stresses nationalism and places the interests of the state above that of the individual
tensions build
Tensions Build…
  • Adolf Hitler offers econ. stability & employment to Germans and becomes chancellor in 1933. He assembles a military and slowly begins grabbing land (Europe & Africa) to build an empire…
  • Benito Mussolini rises to power in 1922 & attempts to restore the “Roman Empire” in Italy. He too, began grabbing territory in Africa (Ethiopia)…
  • Francisco Franco leads the rebel Nationalist army to victory in Spain and gains complete control in 1939…
  • Joseph Stalin grabs control of USSR in 1924 and shuts down ALL opposition in building his communist empire…
  • Hideki Tojo, a nationalistic military leader in Japan, becomes P.M. in 1941 and invades Chinese province of Manchuria (rich in resources) to begin building his own empire…
  • League of Nations condemns Japan (but does little more) , so Japan simply quits the league. The failure of the League to take any real action causes other fascist leaders to suggest that their own nations drop out as well…
neutrality in the u s
Neutrality in the U.S.
  • Many Americans felt the U.S. had been dragged into WWI by “greedy bankers & arms dealers.”
  • 70% of Americans believed that the U.S. should not have entered WWI and most had NO intentions of getting involved in “another war in Europe.”
  • 1935 Congress passed the Neutrality Acts in an effort to avoid involvement in future wars.
  • Roosevelt found it hard to remain neutral when Japan invaded China (as well as Civil War in Spain) and realized that U.S. involvement was inevitable…
in europe
In Europe…
  • Hitler successfully unifies Germany & Austria(mostly German) in1938 with little opposition…
  • Hitler takes(predominantly German)northern borders of Czechoslovakia( the Sudetenland), again, with little opposition…
  • Hitler then sets his sights on Poland (aided by Britain & France) & signs a nonaggression pact w/ Stalin. They agree to divide Poland, but Hitler has other plans. He invades Poland and sparks war w/ Russia, Britain & France.

WWII had begun…

hitler builds an empire
Hitler Builds an Empire
  • After conquering Poland, Hitler invaded & conquered Denmark & Norway…
  • Next he conquered the Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg…
  • He then moved south and set his sights on France, which fell to his Nazi forces in Summer 1940.
  • Sept. 1940, Germany signs Tripartite Pact with Japan & Italy (Axis powers) and agrees that if the U.S. attacks any Axis nation, the others would intervene…
racial persecution
Racial Persecution
  • Shortly after taking power in Germany in 1933, Hitler ordered all “non-Aryans” to be removed from gov’t jobs.
  • This was the 1st move towards “racial purity,” which would lead to the eventual extermination of 11 million Jews known as the Holocaust…
  • Many Germans blamed the Jews for Germany’s defeat/failure in WWI.
  • The 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their civil rights & property
  • As Germany conquered new territories, all Jews were rounded up and shipped to concentration camps where they were overworked, tortured and brutally murdered.
  • Thousands of Jews attempted to flee to other nations (including the U.S.), but most were turned away…
japanese attack @ pearl harbor
Japanese Attack @ Pearl Harbor

Summer 1941, Japan pushed south & took French military bases in Indochina. U.S. cuts all trade relations w/ Japan (inc. oil).

W/o oil, Japan was all but defeated. Tojo began plans to seize oil in

E. Indies.

Nov.-Dec. ‘41, Japan & U.S. engage in peace talks, while Tojo orders Japanese Navy to prepare for attack. U.S. decodes Japanese message to “reject all U.S. proposals.”

Dec. 7, 1941, 180 Japanese war planes descend on U.S. Naval base Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Between 7:30 & 9:30 a.m., Japan killed 2,403 & wounded 1,178 Americans, sunk/damaged 21 ships, destroyed over 300 aircraft.

FDR addressed Congress about the attack as “a day that will live in infamy.” Congress approved FDR’s declaration of war…

japanese internment
Japanese Internment

Following the attack @ Pearl Harbor, racial prejudice towards the nation’s 120,000 Japanese-Americans increased considerably…

Many panic-stricken Americans feared the Japanese would soon attack the U.S.

1942, FDR signed order 9066, requiring all 110,000 citizens of Japanese ancestry on the west coast to be rounded up and placed in 10 hastily constructed internment camps (prison camps).

Thousands of Japanese-Americans were forced to sell homes & businesses as they were seen as a threat to national security.

During the duration of the war, no evidence or charges were ever brought against these citizens…

preparing for war
Preparing for War

Following attack @ Pearl Harbor, 5 million American men volunteered for military enlistment. Draft brought in an additional 10 million.

Women also volunteered for non-combat positions through the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WACC) as nurses, drivers, radio operators…

1 million African-Americans, 300,000 Mexican-Americans, 33,000 Japanese-Americans, 13,000 Chinese-Americans, & 25,000 Native Americans also volunteered…

Factories across the nation quickly converted to war production. Shipyards & defense plants expanded nationwide as 18 million Americans went to work, ultimately ending the Depression.

african americans contribute
African-Americans Contribute

To protest wartime discrimination, labor organizer, A. Philip Randolph proposed a massive march on D.C. for July 1, 1941, under the banner, “We Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country.”

Fearing the 100,000 strong march, FDR called Randolph to the White House & asked him to back down. Randolph agreed provided FDR issue an exec. order calling on employers & labor unions “provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries w/o discrimination…”

mobilization of science
Mobilization of Science

In 1941, FDR also created the Office of Scientific Research (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort. This initiated broad improvements in war tech. such as radar/sonar, pesticides, & penicillin.

Perhaps most significant was the dev. of a new weapon under the direction of German scientist Albert Einstein. Einstein’s theory built on the concept of splitting uranium atoms to release enormous amounts of energy.

FDR secretly created the Advisory Committee on Uranium. Much of the group’s research was conducted @ Columbia University in Manhattan. Dubbed the “Manhattan Project,” the group would developed the first atomic bomb, which would eventually end the war…

u s retaliation
U.S. Retaliation

April 1942 - In direct response to the attack @ Pearl Harbor, Col. James Doolittle led 16 B-25 bombers launched from the aircraft carrier Hornet into Japan.

The bombers swept Tokyo and 4 other Japanese cities, blasting factories, steel mills, oil tanks & other military targets.

The next day, newspaper headlines read, “Tokyo Bombed! Doolitte Do’od It!” and lifted Americans’ sunken spirits. War in the Pacific theater was underway…

island hopping in the pacific
Island Hopping In the Pacific

June ’42, Admiral Chester Nimitz learned that Japan was dispatching 110 ships to the island of Midway. From there their plan was to continue to Hawaii and finish off American Naval power started @ Pearl Harbor…

Nimitz prepared a surprise reception w/ orders to “inflict maximum damage to the enemy.” By the end of the Battle of Midway, the Japanese lost 4 aircraft carriers, a cruiser, & 322 planes.

The U.S. stopped Japan’s eastward advance and began hopping from island to island, pushing them back to their home islands…

preparing for invasion
Preparing for Invasion

As the Allies battled for Italy in 1943, they had begun work on a plan to invade France & free Western Europe from the Nazis.

The task of commanding “Operation Overlord,” as it was called, was placed in the hands of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Under “Ike’s” direction in England, the Allies gathered 3 million British, American, & Canadian troops, and planned to attack the beaches of Normandy in N. France.

The invasion was originally set for June 5, but bad weather pushed the operation back to June 6, 1944…

d day
D - DAY

June 6, 1944, shortly after midnight, three divisions parachuted down behind German lines in France.

At daybreak, thousands upon thousands of of seaborne soldiers (the largest land-sea-air operation in army history) stormed the beaches of Normandy…

German retaliation war fierce, especially at “Omaha Beach.”

Despite heavy casualties, the Allies held the beachheads and after 7 days of heavy combat, the Allies held an 80-mile stretch of France.

Within a month, Allies landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies, and 170,000 vehicles…

The Allies pushed toward Paris and by Sept., had managed to free France from Nazi occupation. Hitler’s days are numbered…

battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge

Sept. ’44, the Allies had freed France, Belgium & Luxembourg from Nazi occupation. In Oct., they crossed the western border of Germany and captured the town of Aachen…

In Dec., Hitler responded with a desperate offensive and ordered his troops to break through the Allied front to recapture Antwerp in hopes of disrupting Allied supply lines…

German tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory and made a “bulge” in the lines. Although 75,000 Americans were killed in the month-long battle, Hitler lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks, & 1,600 planes. The Nazis retreated…

the yalta conference
The Yalta Conference

Feb. ’45, as the Allies pushed toward victory, an ailing FDR met w/ Churchill & Stalin @ the Soviet resort city of Yalta to toast to the near-defeat of Germany…

For 8 days, they discussed the fate of Germany & the post-war world. Stalin favored harsh punishment for Germany & wanted to keep the nation divided into zones controlled by military forces, so that they may never threaten the USSR again.

FDR conceded to these wishes in hopes the Soviets would aid in the defeat of Japan as well as support the new U.N.

v e day
V-E Day!

April ‘45, the Soviet army stormed into the German capital of Berlin from the east.

Hitler prepared for the end… On April 29, he married his companion Eva Braun and wrote his last address to the German people. He blamed the Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it. He poisoned his new bride and shot himself. Per his orders, the bodies were burned.

May ‘45, Gen. Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich. The war in Europe was over!

in the pacific
In the Pacific…

Oct. ’44, Gen. Douglas MacArthur & 178,000 Allied troops returned to the Philippines and liberated American POWs…

The Allies then turned to the island of Iwo Jima, which was critical to the U.S. as a base to launch offensives on the islands of Japan. 20,500 Japanese troops and 6,000 U.S. Marines died in the battle…

April-June ‘45, U.S. Marines invaded Okinawa. Japan unleashed 1,900 Kamikaze attacks. 7,600 Americans and 110,000 Japanese troops died…

a secret weapon
A Secret Weapon

The Battle for Okinawa was just a hint of what would be in store for Allied troops if they attempted to invade Japan by land. Churchill predicted a loss of up to 1.5 million Allied troops…

New U.S. Pres. Harry Truman saw only one way to avoid a ground invasion of Japan. He decided to use the newly dev. atomic bomb…

The first test of the weapon took place on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM. Its blinding flash could be seen 180 miles away…

v j day
V-J Day…

July 25, 1945, Truman ordered the military to make final plans for dropping 2 atomic bombs on Japanese targets…

Aug. 6, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay released an atomic bomb, code-named Little Boy, over Hiroshima. The city ceased to exist…

3 days later a 2nd bomb, code-named Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki, leveling ½ the city…

An est. 200,000 died as a result of the bombs. On Sept. 2, 1945, Emp. Hirohito signed a formal surrender. WWII was officially over.

rebuilding begins
Rebuilding Begins…

The discovery of Hitler’s death camps led the Allies to put 24 surviving Nazi leaders on trial for crimes against humanity, peace, & war crimes. The trials were held in the German town of Nuremberg…

12 of the 24 were sentenced to death, while the rest were sent to prison. Later trials of over 200 lesser Nazi leaders imprisoned many, while others went free…

rebuilding begins1
Rebuilding Begins…

Japan was occupied by U.S. forces under the command of Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

1,100 Japanese were put on trial.

7, inc. P.M Tojo, were sentenced to death.

During the 7 year occupation, MacArthur reshaped Japan’s economy by introducing free-market practices, which led to econ. recovery. He also transformed the Japanese gov’t w/ a new constitution (still called the MacArthur constitution) that ushered in democracy for Japan.

cold war genesis
Cold War Genesis

Following the war @ Potsdam Conference, US/USSR dislikes and distrust reemerged.

At Yalta, Stalin promised FDR that he would allow free elections in the E. Euro nations that USSR occupied. Instead, Stalin crushed all democratic movements in the region following the war and made them communist satellite nations.

Old “red scare” sentiments surfaced in U.S. and many began to predict WWIII w/ communists.

Per Stalin’s wishes @ Yalta, Germany was partitioned into 4 occupation zones & Berlin was split…

the berlin airlift
The Berlin Airlift

Eventually E. and W. Germany emerged...

The capital of Berlin was literally divided with a wall and W. Berlin was an island of democracy surrounded by a sea of communism in E. Germany…

This set the stage for the first “battle” of the Cold War, the siege of W. Berlin…

In 1948 the Soviets blockaded access to W. Berlin, forcing Allies to airlift supplies into the isolated half of the city (a.k.a. the Berlin Airlift).

truman doctrine marshall plan
Truman Doctrine/Marshall plan

In response to the Berlin crisis, Truman issued his “Truman Doctrine,” which pledged the U.S. would help fight communism, or “contain” it, anywhere on the globe.

In 1947 the Sec. of State George Marshall initiated a joint economic plan called the “Marshall Plan,” in which the US spent billions to stimulate the W. Euro. economies and make friends/allies. This ensured democracies and capitalism would not fall to communism.

10 western nations formed NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org) in response to the E. Euro/USSR Warsaw Pact alliance…

china falls
China Falls…

For 2 decades, Chinese Communists struggled against the nationalist gov’t of Chiang Kai-shek (U.S. ally supported by $3 mil. in aid).

Communist leader Mao Zedong gained increased influence in the desperately poor nation.

Following the defeat of Japan, civil war broke out in China between the Communists & the corrupt Nationalist leadership.

In ’49, the Nationalist movement collapsed and fled to Taiwan. China was now a Communist nation.

korean conflict
Korean Conflict

The Chinese Communist revolution was a success as the Nationalist Chinese were defeated and “Red China” was formed.

Following this, the Korean peninsula erupted into revolution and the Truman Doctrine was tested in Asia.

US/UN forces led by Gen. MacArthur fought for 3 years against communist influence in the North…

the Korean Conflict “ended” with a cease fire that divided the peninsula @ the 38th parallel DMZ = Communist N. Korea & Democratic S. Korea…

cold war @ home
Cold War @ Home

1950, Sen. Joseph McCarthy(R. of Wis.) was convinced there were thousands of “Reds” who had “infiltrated” the Fed. Gov’t and the Armed Forces/State Dept.

Fanning the flames of the new “Red Scare,” McCarthy’s House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) accused many without proof…

The infamous 1949 “Rosenberg Trial” ended with the only peacetime executions of husband & wife for espionage / sharing H-bomb secrets w/ USSR…

Writers, actors, & atheletes accused….

Later he attacked the US Army and a series of televised hearings took place, McCarthy was ruined & died of alcoholism.

baby boom
Baby Boom

By 1946, some 10 million had been released from military service…

The G.I. Bill was issued by the Fed. Gov’t to provide ed. & unemployment benefits…

These returning soldiers quickly settled into family life and contributed to a massive pop. explosion known as the “Baby Boom.”

A severe housing shortage led dev. like Kaiser & Levitt to produce mass produced homes in “suburbs” like the “Levitttown” community in N.Y.

impact of television
Impact of Television

The new suburban lifestyle enabled people to provide their families with the “good things” in life.

With more women working, many households had more income and more leisure time…

Television helped fill this time and gained rapid popularity as 45 million homes had the device by 1960. This period of rapid expansion is known as “the Golden Age” of T.V.

Comedies like I Love Lucy were immediate hits and advertising was quick to harness this popularity to sell even more consumer goods.

cuban revolution
Cuban Revolution

1956-’59, Fidel Castro led a guerilla movement to topple Cuban gov’t…

At first, the U.S. recognized the new gov’t, but deteriorated quickly…

Castro’s regime ceased U.S. & British oil refineries and broke U.S. controlled commercial sugar farms into communes.

Castro also relied increasingly on Soviet aid & political repression of any who did not agree w/ him…

About 10% of Cuban pop. went into exile in Miami, where a counterrevolution gained strength…

cold war space race
Cold War Space Race

In competition for international prestige, the Soviets leaped to an early lead in the “space race.”

Oct. 4, ’57, USSR launched the “Sputnik” satellite, which was a triumph of Soviet tech.

Americans were shocked and fearful at being beaten by the Soviets and quickly poured $$$ into a U.S. space program…

The 1st attempt to launch a U.S. satellite was a humiliating failure, but on Jan. 31, ’58, the U.S. finally succeeded. On to the moon…

cuban confrontation
Cuban Confrontation

The U.S. was not happy that Cuba fell to Castro’s communist regime just 90 miles off the FL coast…

A poorly planned attempt to remove Castro in ‘61 became a fiasco known as the Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy took blame….

Oct. ‘62 U-2 planes spotted USSR missile silos in Cuba, US could bomb, invade, or…..

A “quarantine” of Cuba by US ships led to a showdown. Both sides consider confrontation, but eventually back down. Khruschev ordered nukes removed.

We never came closer to nuclear annihilation during the entire Cold War.

vietnam conflict
Vietnam “Conflict”

America’s involvement in Vietnam began in 1950, during the French Indochina War, the name given to France’s attempt to reestablish its rule in Vietnam after WWII.

In an effort to combat the spread of communism, the U.S. provided France with $$$ and military support…

The Indochinese Communist Party was founded in 1930 by Ho Chi Minh…

Minh vowed to fight from the North to liberate the South from French control…

vietnam war
Vietnam War

Despite massive U.S. aid, the French could not retake Vietnam…

In ’54, the Geneva Accords temp. divided Vietnam @ the 17th parallel. The Communists controlled the North, the U.S. backed Nationalists who controlled the South…

The U.S. promised aid & military training to Nationalist (Catholic) president Ngo Dinh Diem but the corrupt Nat’l gov’t suppressed all peasant & Buddhist opposition and quickly lost support…

vietnam war1
Vietnam War

In an attempt to contain Comm. “Vietcong” influence and win crucial peasant support in the south, the U.S. backed the assassination/coup of Diem and took total control of the S. Vietnam gov’t…

By ‘63, 16,000 U.S. military “personnel” were in S. Vietnam.

In 1964 Johnson escalated Vietnam into a full scale war.

By ’68, 500,000 men, cost $30billion/year spent in “guerilla warfare”

Jan. ‘68, Tet Offensive shocked US but US forces prevailed….

After Tet, war seemed unwinnable to people here at home…