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Clinical Psychology prior to World War II. No real standards for training and licensure Psychologists had low status in hospitals and clinics Clinicians were not well respected within the APA 1937: American Association for Applied Psychology formed. After World War II.

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Clinical Psychology prior to World War II

  • No real standards for training and licensure

  • Psychologists had low status in hospitals and clinics

  • Clinicians were not well respected within the APA

  • 1937: American Association for Applied Psychology formed


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After World War II

  • Shift in power, from academic psychology to clinical

  • By 1962, psychologists working in nonacademic jobs outnumbered those in academic jobs

  • Researchers became distressed about the new direction APA was taking


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Modern clinical psychology

  • 40-45% of “casualties” of WWII were psychological breakdowns

  • After war, more veterans suffered from psychological problems than were hospitalized for physical injuries

  • Psychiatrists alone could not cope with the need--psychologists took on greater roles


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The Boulder model

  • 1949: 15-day conference on clinical training at University of Colorado

  • Emphasized three skills of clinician

    • Diagnosis

    • Psychotherapy

    • Research

  • Basis for “scientist-practitioner” model


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But does psychotherapy work?

  • Eysenck study (1952)

    • Combination of several studies evaluating therapy effectiveness

    • Groups without treatment: 72% improved

    • Psychoanaysis: 44% improved

    • “Eclectic therapy”: 64% improved

  • Prompted new approaches such as behavior therapy & humanistic therapy


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Pioneers of behavior therapy

  • Mary Cover Jones

  • Hans Eysenck

  • Joseph Wolpe: systematic desensitization


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“Third Force” psychology

  • What did the Third Force revolt against?

    • Force 1: Psychoanalysis

      • Emphasis on mentally disturbed people

    • Force 2: Behaviorism

      • Reduces humans to machines or animals


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Characteristics of 3rd force:

  • Does not assume determinism in explaining human behavior

  • Believed cause of behavior was subjective reality (person’s own unique conscious experience)

  • Basis in phenomenology (study of intact, meaningful experience), free of theories or preconceptions


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Two branches of Third Force:

  • Existential psychology (roots in Europe)

  • Humanistic psychology (roots in America)


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Existentialism: Martin Heidegger

  • Concept of dasein (“being in the world”): person and world cannot be separated

  • Living an authentic life

    • Accepting your mortality

    • Exercising your freedom to create a meaningful life

    • Freedom brings responsibility, which requires courage


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Existentialism: Rollo May

  • Brought existentialism to America

  • Examined concept of anxiety in more detail

    • Some anxiety is necessary for authentic life

    • Neurotic anxiety comes from avoiding your freedom and not taking responsibility for your own choices


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Abraham Maslow: The “Father of Humanistic Psychology”

  • Major beliefs:

    • Studying animals CANNOT tell us anything of value about human beings

    • Subjective reality should be the primary focus of psychology

    • Rejection of the goal of predicting and controlling behavior

  • Human motivation is based on satisfying a hierarchy of needs


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Self-Actualizing

Esteem

Belonging & Love

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


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Carl Rogers’ “Client-Centered Therapy”

  • Client and therapist seen as equals

  • Therapist asks questions, does not provide answers

  • Growth depends on receiving unconditional positive regard from others