第四篇 組 織. 管理團隊 Groups and Teams. 12. 各節重點. 12.1 瞭解群體發展的各個階段. 12.2 解釋決定群體績效和滿意度的要素. 12.3 定義何謂團隊與影響團隊績效的最佳實務. 12.4 描述現今管理團隊的議題. 群體及群體發展 Group and Group Development. 12.1. 群體行為並非只是所有個人行為的加總，因為個人在群體中的行為和他們獨自一人時的表現大不相同。.
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Groups and Teams
Group and Group Development
Group - two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals.
Research shows that group develop through five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.
Why are some groups more successful than others? Why do some groups achieve high levels of performance and high levels of member satisfaction and others do not?
External Conditions Imposed on the Group
Work groups affected by the external conditions imposed on it, such as the organization’s strategy, authority relationships, formal rules and regulations, availability of resources, employee selection criteria, the performance management system and culture, and the general physical layout of the group’s work space.
A group’s performance potential depends to a large extent on the resources each individual brings to the group. These resources include knowledge, abilities, skills, and the personality traits, and they determine what members can do and how effectively they will perform in a group.
Work groups have an internal structure that shapes members’ behavior and influences group performance.
Role - behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.自我與他人期待 /角色衝突
Norms - standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members.
Conformity – because individuals want to accepted by groups to which they belong, they are susceptible to pressures to confirm.
群體迷思 - 群體成員為了取得外界和諧和一致贊同的印象，而壓抑不同或不受歡迎的觀點。
Groupthink - when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others.
Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. 激勵因子 / 非正式特性之地位 / 可被正式賦予
Group Size – Research indicates that small groups are faster at completing tasks than larger ones. However, for groups engaged in problem solving, large groups consistently get better results than smaller ones.
社會賦閒 – 個人在與群體共同工作時，比獨立作業時付出較少的努力。
Social loafing - the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
群體凝聚力 – 成員受群體吸引而共享群體目標的程序。
Group cohesiveness - the degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals.
The factor that determines group performance and satisfaction concerns the processes that go on within a work group such as communication, decision making, conflict management, and the like.綜效 or 衝突?
群體決策 Group Decision Making
It’s a rare organization that doesn’t use committees, task forces, review panels, study teams, or other similar groups to make decisions.
Generate more complete information and knowledge
Generate more diverse alternatives
Increase acceptance of a solution
always take more time to reach a solution.
dominant and vocal minority can heavily influence the final decision
Groupthink can undermine critical thinking in the group and harm the quality of the final decision.
In a group, members share responsibility, but the responsibility of any single member is ambiguous
Exhibit 12-8: Conflict-Management Techniques
Turning Groups into Effective Teams
工作團隊的定義 What Is a Work Team?
Work teams - groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.
Problem-solving team - a team from the same department or functional area that’s involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems.
2. 自我管理團隊 – 由員工所組成之正式團隊，沒有監督者，成員自行負責完成整個或部份的工作流程。
Self-managed work team - a type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment.
Cross-functional team - a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties.
4. 虛擬團隊 – 運用電腦科技將分散在各地的成員連結，以達成共同的目標。
Virtual team - a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
Exhibit 12-10: Characteristics of Effective Teams
Current Challenges in Managing Teams
Exhibit 12-11: Global Teams
Social Network- The patterns of informal connections among individuals within groups.