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Water and Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Corey repasy. “The Future W e Want”: Water and Sanitation.

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Water and Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals


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    the future w e want water and sanitation
    “The Future We Want”: Water and Sanitation

    “We commit to the progressive realization of access to safe and affordable drinking water and basic sanitation for all, as necessary for poverty eradication, women’s empowerment and to protect human health, and to significantly improve the implementation of integrated water resource management at all levels as appropriate.”

    Recognizes that water is linked to a number of other global challenges

    Reaffirmed human right to safe drinking water

    “We stress the need to adopt measures to significantly reduce water pollution and increase water quality, significantly improve wastewater treatment and water efficiency and reduce water losses.”

    millennium development goal target 7c
    Millennium Development Goal Target 7C
    • The Goal:
      • Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
    • World has met target of halving proportion of people without access to safe water 5 years in advance
      • Still far from providing universal access to clean and safe water
      • Have not achieved the sanitation goal
    • 2.5 billion people in developing countries remain without access to an improved source of drinking water
      • WHO/UNCEF Joint Monitoring Program Definition of Improved water source: “one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with faecalmatter”
      • Access to water is defined as ‘the availability of at least 20 liters per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the users’ dwelling’
        • Does not include time taken to collect water
    the report from the open working group of the general assembly on sustainable development goals
    The Report from the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals
    • “Water scarcity and water variability are becoming more serious concerns with climate change, and so sustainable water management needs to feature prominently in the post-2015 development agenda”
    • There is broad support for a water SDG that contains all water concerns:
      • Universal and sustained access to safe water
      • Sanitation and hygiene
      • Sustainable development
      • Management and use of surface and groundwater
      • Resources respecting ecosystem requirements
      • Reduction of water pollution and collection and treatment of used water and wastewater
      • Reduction of exposure and impacts from floods, droughts and other water related disasters;
      • Enhanced water co-operation and improved water governance
    • “Water is at the core of sustainable development in that it is essential to many of the development achievement goals including agriculture, health, and education”
    water supply shortage a current reality
    Water Supply Shortage: A Current Reality
    • 700 million people live in countries experiencing water stress or scarcity.
      • When annual water supplies drop below 1,700 m3 per person, an area is experiencing water stress
      • When it drops below 1,000 m3 per person, the population faces water scarcity
      • Below 500 cubic meters "absolute scarcity”
    • More than 300 million people in Sub-Sahara Africa live in water-scarce environments
    • 2/3 of the world’s population will live in water stressed environments by 2025
    • 3.5 planets Earth would be needed to sustain a global population achieving the current lifestyle of the average European or North American.
    climate change and its effects on water
    Climate Change and its Effects on Water
    • Higher temperatures and changes in extreme weather conditions are projected to affect availability and distribution of rainfall, snowmelt, river flows and groundwater, and further deteriorate water quality.
    • If the global temperature increases by 3-4 degrees Celsius, 1.8 billion people will live in water scarce environments by 2080.
    • In southern Africa, for example, scientists anticipate a sharp decline in precipitation between 10% and 20%
    • Scientists predict there will be significant reductions in the annual mean discharge by the end of the century in some trans boundary river basins,
      • Danube (decrease of 21.9%)
      • Euphrates (decrease of 38%)
      • Rhine (decrease of 13.3%)
      • Rio Grande (decrease of 26.7%),
      • SyrDarya (decrease of 10.3%)
    water sanitation and hygiene
    Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    For MDG monitoring, “an improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact”

    Only 47% of the rural population in developing countries uses improved sanitation

    2.5 billion people or 1/3 of the world’s population will remain without access to improved sanitation in 2015

    Overall, nearly three million deaths annually can be directly attributed to inadequate and impure water, improper sanitation, and improper hygiene

    On July 28, 2010, the United Nations recognized the human right to water and sanitation.

    water and food security
    Water and Food Security
    • Recent analyses show that countries which face severe problems of hunger are also characterized by lower levels of water security
    • Agriculture accounts for 70% of all water withdrawn by the agricultural, municipal and industrial (including energy) sectors
    • By 2050, food demand is expected to increase by 60%
    • Economic growth and individual wealth are shifting diets from predominantly starch-based to meat and dairy, which require more water.
      • Producing 1 kg rice, for example, requires about 3,500 L water, 1 kg beef some 15,000 L, and a cup of coffee about 140 L.
    linkage between water food and energy
    Linkage Between Water, Food and Energy
    • Energy generation and transmission requires utilization of water resources, particularly for hydroelectric, nuclear, and thermal energy sources
    • The latest World Water Development Report (2012) predicts that even a small increase in biofuel demand could push up the water demand by as much as 20% of the water used for agriculture worldwide.
    • Water, energy, and food are all linked
      • Agriculture is currently the largest user of water at the global level, accounting for 70% of total withdrawal.
      • The food production and supply chain accounts for about 30% of total global energy consumption.
    water security and conflict
    Water Security and Conflict
    • Over 90% of the world’s population lives in countries that share basins
    • Transboundary lake and river basins cover nearly one half of the Earth’s land surface and account for 60% of the global freshwater flow.
    • About 2 billion people worldwide depend on groundwater, which includes approximately 300 transboundary aquifer systems.
      • “UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon cautioned that water scarcity could spell an increase in future conflicts, and added that ‘[p]opulation growth will make the problem worse. So will climate change. As the global economy grows, so will its thirst. Many more conflicts lie just over the horizon.’”
    sources used
    Sources Used

    http://www.unwater.org/topics/water-in-the-post-2015-development-agenda/en/

    http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/3238summaryallowg.pdf

    http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/66/288&Lang=E

    http://www.gwp.org/en/ToolBox/CRITICAL-CHALLENGES1/Water-and-Climate-Change/

    Dar, Osman A and Khan. S Mishal. “Millennium development goals and the water target: details, definitions and debate.” Accessed March 31, 2014.

    Eckstein, Gabriel. “Water Scarcity, Conflict, and Security in a Climate Change World: Challenges and Opportunities for International Law and Policy.” Accessed April 1, 2014.

    background
    Background
    • Sep 2011- Sep 2012
      • UN System Task Team
      • Post-2015 Consultation starts
      • UN ”Realizing the Future We want for All”
      • Rio + 20 summit in 2012 “The Future we want”
    • Sep 2012 - Sep 2013
      • UN High Level Panel formed
      • First report mid-year 2013
    • March 2014-April 2014
      • Focus area document adopted and reviewed
      • Indicative debate based on clusters related to focus area document
      • Jan 2015, MDG Deadline and Post-2015 Negotiations start
    19 focus areas
    19 Focus Areas
    • Compendium of existing goals and targets
    • under the 19 Focus Areas being considered by the OWG.
    • The GSO has identified 4 areas that need closer attention:
        • Health and population dynamics
        • Food security and nutrition
        • Water and sanitation
        • Energy
        • The GSO has identified 4 areas that need closer attention:
    • The importance of interlinkages
    health in the post 2015 agenda focus area 3 health and population dynamics
    Health in the post-2015 agendaFocus area 3. Health and population dynamics

    “Achieving the highest attainable standard of mental and physical health for all is a basic right”

    -the Health and Population Dynamics Cluster within the NGO Major Group

    Healthas “a precondition for, and an Outcome and indicator of all three dimensions of sustainable development.”

    interlinkages heath population dynamics and food security nutrition
    InterlinkagesHeath & population dynamics and food security& nutrition

    Sources: Adopted from GTZ (2010)

    interlinkages heath population dynamics and water sanitation
    InterlinkagesHeath & population dynamics and Water & sanitation
    • Health outcomes
    • Pathogenic contamination
    • Diarrhoeal diseases
    • Typhoid
    • Chemical contamination
    • Arsenicocis
    • Fluorosis
    • Hygiene related diseases
    • trachoma
    • scabies

    Source: adopted from WHO

    interlinkages heath population dynamics and energy
    InterlinkagesHeath & population dynamics and Energy
    • Energy provides life-sustaining and health-promoting goods
    • Energy climate change Health
    • Energy Pollution Health
    • Energy  Climate change Population dynamics  Food & nutrition  Health
    what have been achieved so far
    What have been achieved so far?
    • Three of the eight MDGs are health goals.
    • Key successes
      • Dramatic reductions in child mortality
      • Access to antiretroviral drugs,
      • Significant impact of vaccine programmes
      • controlling (and in some countries eliminating) malaria
    • Key failures
      • goals related to nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene, and access to essential medicines
      • Countries with the least successful results were the ones facing economical hardship and poor governance.
      • Lack of equity is one of the most significance shortcoming of health MDGs
    moving forward
    Moving forward
    • Equity , Human rights , Democracy , Government
    • Goals and target:
      • Forward-looking
      • Promote human rights for all, including the right to health for People of all ages and abilities
      • Focus on the poorest and most vulnerable and marginalized populations
      • Policies to support health and development throughout The life course
      • By including health-­‐sensitive indicators across all sustainable development dimensions
    • Linkage between health and development should be made clearer
    • Global partnership
    • Financing
    moving forward analysis
    Moving forward Analysis
    • Unfinished business
      • Goal 4: Decrease child mortality rate.-Replace it by decrease mortality rate at all stages of life.
      • Goal 5: improve maternal health.
      • Goal 6: To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. We should replace by:
      • To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and non-communicable diseases.
    • Global partnership–Avoid fragmentation and duplication-promote effective use of resources
    • Using Health as an indicator for development-measuring data
    • Focus on wellbeing ( treatment and prevention)
    • Financing
      • official development assistance(ODA)
      • Domestic resource mobilization(empowering the youth, taxes)
      • Private sector(Bank loans, remittances)
    • Technology—Mobile tech; entrepreneurship ; start-up
    slide23

    Millennium Development Goal 1 Eradication of Extreme Poverty and Hunger

    Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

    The region of South East Asia has accomplished this goal ahead of time and the global hunger reduction proportion is within reach.

    Post 2015 to focus on sustainable production and further reduction of hunger.

    issues

    “Good nutrition is a pre-condition for a healthy and productive life; malnutrition in all of its forms imposes high economic, social and human development costs on individuals, households, communities and countries”

    • Access to food is still a problem in the world; According to the FAO around 845 million people suffered from hunger from 2011-2013.
    • Malnutrition is still very prevalent in the world in a variety of ways including lack of access to food that is safe, diverse and nutritious.
    Issues
    issues continued

    Food chains are changing and this has caused a “nutrition transition” where countries face rising obesity levels but still face the challenge of undernutrition. This is also referred to as the double burden.

    • In developing countries the national food laws and control systems are inadequate which causes food quality and safety to be lacking.
    • Agriculture production and food systems should be made more resilient to withstand economic and environmental shocks.
    • Food production is not produced in a sustainable manner and should be produced with limited energy resources.
    Issues (Continued)
    who is involved

    UN Member Countries,

    UN bodies like FAO, WFP, and IFAD

    Various NGO’s

    Private Sector

    Agriculture Research Networks

    Who is involved
    zero hunger challenge

    Purpose: This requires comprehensive efforts to ensure that every man, woman and child enjoy their Right to Adequate Food; women are empowered; priority is given to family farming; and food systems everywhere are sustainable and resilient.

    It allows individuals, NGO’s, Businesses, and governments to get involved with the process.

    Goals of this initiative include: Zero stunted children less than 2 years( Working with the SUN Movement), 100% access to adequate food all year round , all food systems are sustainable, 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income, and zero loss or waste of food

    Zero Hunger Challenge
    conservation agriculture

    Conservation agriculture (CA) “is an approach to managing agro-ecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment.”

    Three Principles:

    Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance.

    Permanent organic soil cover.

    Diversification of crop species grown in sequences and/or associations.

    Benefits Include:

    More sustainable production, less pollution, higher efficiency,

    Conservation Agriculture
    relation to energy

    Energy is linked to food security because the lack of energy prevents the eradication of hunger and malnutrition

    • Food systems need to transition away from fossil fuel dependence so more and higher quality food with less and better energy can be produced in a sustainable way.
    • “Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate” is a FAO multi-partner program that aims to support stakeholders in improving energy efficiency, increasing the use of renewable energy, and improving access to modern energy services in food systems.
    • Energy is important for sustainability in terms of long term agriculture production. The use of energy in food systems is not sustainable as one third of food is lost or wasted and with it 38% of the energy used in food systems.
    • Bioenergy possible solution as it is derived from biofuels. However there is a debate on whether crops should be turned into biofuels
    Relation to Energy
    relation to health

    Malnutrition directly related to health if individuals do not have any access to health care or have inadequate healthcare.

    • Another important relation is inadequate education on healthy eating habits for adults and children.
    • The availability of nutritious food also poses a health risk either by the nutritious or variety of nutritious food is unavailable or it is more expensive than other food options.
    Relation to Health
    relation to water

    Lack of access to clean water can lead to diarrhea which leads to malnutrition.

    • Polluted water can also lead to lower quality crops.
    • Agriculture uses large quantities of water in an unsustainable pattern to grow crops.
    • Water allocation and management in the agriculture sector needs to be redesigned to be more efficient and one method could be to modernize agriculture practices.
    Relation to Water
    relation to trade

    Food supply chains are changing as the way people produce and process foods change. Trade can influence this process and potentially improve the double burden nutrition crisis.

    • The quality and safety of food can be influenced by trade if countries are held to an international standard.
    • Trade can help make sustainable energy sources a feasible option for making food production sustainable.
    • It can also make food more accessible through economic development.
    • However there is the reverse argument that trade creates technical barriers for the agricultural sectors of countries.
    Relation to Trade
    source material

    http://www.worldwewant2015.org/food2015

    http://www.post2015hlp.org/about/

    http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1534

    http://www.fao.org/post-2015-mdg/home/en/

    http://www.fao.org/post-2015-mdg/14-themes/energy/en/

    http://www.un.org/en/zerohunger/challenge.shtml

    http://www.fao.org/post-2015-mdg/14-themes/nutrition/en/

    http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/news.shtml

    http://unctad.org/en/Pages/About%20UNCTAD/Post-2015.aspx

    http://www.fao.org/post-2015-mdg/mdg/goal-1/en/

    http://www.fao.org/ag/ca/1a.html

    http://www.ifad.org/governance/post2015/index.htm

    Source Material
    energy challenges

    Energy Challenges

    At The Post 2015 Agenda

    Mano Sakayan

    Global Social Observatory

    overview
    Overview
    • Commitment
    • Energy: at the base of everything
    • Universal access to energy
    • The move towards sustainable energy
    • Is renewable energy cost effective?
    • Energy storage
    • The interaction between the private sector, NGOs (including youth), governments
    • Promotion of regional cooperation
    • Links between energy and water
    • Links between energy and health
    • Links between energy and food security
    commitment
    Commitment
    • Momentum and commitment are growing.
    • Energy and sustainable development have become a political priority for all
    • 2 issues: “Access” and “Waste and Pollution”
    • 1/5 of the planet lacks access to electricity.
    • Major barrier to eradicating poverty and building shared prosperity.
    energy is at the base of everything
    Energy is at the base of everything
    • 2014-2024: the UN Decade of “Sustainable Energy for All.”
    • Global initiative to achieve universal energy access, improve energy efficiency, and increase the use of renewable energy.
    • Energy lies at the heart of all countries’ core challenges: poverty, clean water, food security, climate change, women’s and youth empowerments, security concerns, public health, education and economic growth.
    u niversal access to modern energy services
    Universal access to modern energy services
    • Access to electrification, thermal energy, clean cooking facilities and fuels  crucial for poverty reduction and equitablegrowth.
    • Expansion of access should be prioritized according to countries’ specific circumstances.
    • Availability, acceptability, affordability and quality of energy services for the most marginalized and vulnerable
    • SMEs and civil society can drive action in energy access.
    moving towards sustainable energy
    Moving towards sustainable energy
    • Technologies that promote sustainable energy include renewable energy sources(hydroelectricity, solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, artificial photosynthesis, tidal power) and also technologies designed to improve energy efficiency.
    • Internationally agreed goal of max 2C max. global temperature rise
    • This transition is one of the greatest investment opportunities of the 21st century
    are renewable sources of energy cost effective
    Are renewable sources of energy cost effective?
    • Countries with large amounts of renewable generationface the highest energy prices in the rich world.
    • Despite the lure of government subsidies, there are still too few companies making renewable capacities’ equipment.
    • Supply-chain bottlenecks have frustrated governments scrabbling to install new renewable capacities.
    energy storage is a solution
    Energy storage is a solution
    • Energy storage – both electricity and thermal – can decouple supply from demand, increase system flexibility and improve reliability.
    • Storage could play a key role in coming decades in facilitating the expansion of variable renewable energy.
    • China, India, the EU and the US should invest at least USD 380 billion* in new electricity storage capacity by 2050 to support decarbonisation.

    *Source: IEA

    research development and initiatives in sustainable energy
    Research, development and initiatives in sustainable energy
    • Research and development from governments and the private sector would drive technological innovation and reduce the cost of clean energy technologies.
    • This should come from public and private sectors (think tanks, universities, laboratories, initiatives)
    • As costs for clean energy technologies fall, these alternatives become attractive economically all over the globe.
    civil society and youth must drive this change
    Civil society and youth must drive this change
    • Fundamental roles of civil society and youth in identifying, advocating, and monitoring public policy and business action.
    • They can lead to social innovation and grassroots action, champion behavioral changeand help spread best practices.
    creating enabling environments
    Creating enablingenvironments
    • Governments must establish their own clear targets and strategies
    • They should design and implement a set of national policies, regulations and financial environments
    • International support must build on national ownership, the right to self-determination and complement local efforts and fiscal resources
    • Enabling conditions should also be designed to support bottom-up approaches.
    promoting regional cooperation among stakeholders
    Promoting regional cooperation among stakeholders
    • Promoting regional cooperation among stakeholders leads to better performance and reduces costs
    • Energy infrastructure is becoming increasingly complex
    • Need for harmonization of practices and infrastructure interconnection on a regional level
    how are energy and water linked to each other
    How are energy and water linked to each other?
    • Energy is needed for the collection, transportation and treatment of water.
    • Water is required in the production and extraction of fossil fuels.
    • Droughts make energy shortages worse, while lack of electricity reduces farmers' ability to irrigate their fields.
    • Addressing the Energy-Water Collision
    how are energy and health linked to each other
    How are energy and health linked to each other?
    • Energy provides life-sustaining and health-promoting goods, from the electricity that powers our lives, to the fuel that transports us from one place to another.
    • Each stage in the life cycle of fossil fuels carries multiple hazards for our health and the environment.
    • Rising sea levels, floods, droughts, and heat waves are becoming more common, entire communities are seeking refuge away from their homes  Displaced Populations
    • Energy poverty threatens health care for the poorest
    how are energy and food security linked to each other
    How are energy and food security linked to each other?
    • Poor water management practices contribute to depletion and degradation of land & water resources.
    • Improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and reducing food insecurity.
    • Biofuels based on crops compete with food crops for land and water resources.
    how are energy and food security linked to each other1
    How are energy and food security linked to each other?
    • Energy from hydropower both facilitates and hampers food production:
    • hydropower dams are often multi-functional and reservoirs serve turbines as well as irrigated land
    • but because energy generation is usually of higher value than agriculture, energy gets priority over food production.
    • Agriculture is water and energy intensive: pumping groundwater for agriculture takes considerable amounts of energy (4-6% of total GHG emissions in India*)

    *Source: UNESCO – Institute for Water Education

    financing for sustainable development in post 2015 development agenda

    Financing for Sustainable Developmentin Post-2015 Development Agenda

    GSO 10th Anniversary Event

    history from monterrey to busan
    History: from Monterrey to Busan
    • Monterrey Consensus
    • Adopted in 2002
    • The major reference point for international development cooperation.
    • 6 areas of Financing for Development
    history from monterrey to busan1
    History: from Monterrey to Busan
    • 2008: Doha Declaration on Financing for Development
      • Reaffirms the goals and commitments of the Monterrey Consensus
      • New Challenges and Opportunities
    • 2011: BusanConference
      • 4th High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness
      • Ownership of development for priorities by developing countries
    intergovernmental committee of experts on sustainable development financing
    Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing
    • Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing (ICESDF)
    • An intergovernmental committee
    • 30 experts nominated by regional groups
    • Equitable geographical representation
    • A Working Group on Financing for Sustainable Development has been set up under the UN System Task Team (UNTT) to support
    intergovernmental committee of experts on sustainable development financing1
    Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing
    • December 2013
    • Domestic and international policy environments and their level of coherence
    • Financing needs are large, and quantifying these needs are highly complex
    • All types of flows: public and private, international and domestic – reinforcing
    • ODA will remain crucial, but it alone will not be sufficient
    icesdf march meeting voices from multi stakeholders i
    ICESDF March MeetingVoices from Multi-stakeholders (I)
    • Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development
    • UN Major Group for Children and Youth
    • International Chamber of Commerce

    Credit: un.org

    icesdf march meeting voices from multi stakeholders ii
    ICESDF March MeetingVoices from Multi-stakeholders (II)
    • Address the multiple, interrelated crises of finance, environment, and inequality
    • Importance of international legal and institutional framework, and rule of law
    • Eliminate illicit flow of funds and tax avoidance & havens
    • Consensus-building through multi-stakeholder dialogue to create enabling business environment
    going forward
    Going Forward
    • First High-Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation (GPEDC)
    • 15-16 April 2014 in Mexico City
    • Financing for inclusive and sustainable development: from Monterrey to Rio+20
    • Committed to Paradigm Shift from aid effectiveness to effective development cooperation
    gpedc 2014
    GPEDC 2014
    • Upholding the Busan principles: inclusiveness, and transparency and mutual accountability
      • Ownership of priorities by developing countries
      • Inclusive partnerships and development
      • Supporting transition to resilience of fragile and conflict-affected states
    • Middle Income Countries (MICs): diverse and complex
    • South-South and Triangular Cooperation
    challenges and opportunities
    Challenges and Opportunities
    • Domestic resource mobilization
    • Emerging donors: reducing complexity?
    • Private finance for development: how to unlock private investment?
    • Innovative financing
      • Recourses for Infrastructure (RfI): desirable?
      • Climate change and development finance
    • Improve coverage, coherence, consistency, and efficiency
    main sources of financing for sd
    Main Sources of Financing for SD
    • Households
    • Governments (local and national)
    • Official Development Assistance (ODA)
    • South-South Cooperation (SSC)
    • Private flows (domestic and external)
    • Innovative sources of finance for development
    • Finance for global public goods, particularly climate change
    large financing needs
    Large Financing Needs

    Source: Paying for progress: how will emerging post-2015 goals be financed in the new aid landscape? Overseas Development Institute 2013

    financing health
    Financing – Health
    • Goal: Universal Healthcare Coverage (UHC)
    • Household out-of-pocket expenditures:
      • raise additional revenue: little evidence
      • discourage service usage
    • African governments committed 15% of their budgets, but rarely reached
    • ODA to health care: falling trend
    • Private sector as healthcare provider: requires public sector to link low-income households
    financing water and sanitation
    Financing – Water and Sanitation
    • Goal: Universal coverage of water supply and sanitation (WATSAN)
    • Households contributed an average of 44% (WHO and UN Water Report, 2012).
    • Low-income households will need support to ensure access to a basic level of water supply
    • Governments need to increase their own allocations:
      • African countries should spend 4.5% of GDP on WATSAN
    • Private sector can bridge but cannot close the gap
    financing agriculture food security
    Financing – Agriculture & Food Security
    • Goal: Zero Hunger Challenge
    • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
    • Household: farming households’ savings and fixed capital as the main sources. However, limits exist.
    • Countries with high level of poverty and hunger: limits to what households can be expected to invest
    • FAO estimated that about 75% of the investments required to end hunger by 2025 will have to come from the developing country private sector, but investments by governments need to be scaled up
    financing sustainable energy
    Financing – Sustainable Energy
    • To guarantee sustainable energy for all (SE4ALL spending):
      • Additional $34 billion annually, $14 billion to $48 billion per year between 2010 and 2030
    • Renewable energy spending:
      • $400 billion-$900 billion increase over and above the current spending of $1.3 trillion annually
    financing sustainable energy1
    Financing – Sustainable Energy
    • Source of financing:
      • Electricity tariffs charged to middle- and higher-income household and business users should aim at full cost recovery
      • South-South Cooperation necessary for financing and technology transfer
      • Private flow: potentially significant for achieving targets