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The Basics of Baking

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  1. The Basics of Baking

  2. I. Roles of Ingredients

  3. Flour – the protein and starch in flour make up most of the baked product’s structure. • Similar to the steel beams in a building • Types of Flour • All Purpose Flour – most popular • *gives good results • b. Bread Flour – highest gluten content • *gives bread a strong structure • c. Cake Flour – contains less gluten • *gives product a more tender texture • Whole Grain Flour – weaker gluten structure than all purpose flour • *whole grain flours are generally combined with all purpose flour in equal proportions

  4. B. Liquid – play a major role in the physical and chemical changes that occur during baking • Milk and Water – most common liquids • Milk adds flavor and nutrients • Helps product to brown better • Use reduced fat or fat free milk to reduce fat content • Buttermilk – gives a slightly tangy flavor

  5. C. Leavening Agents – causes the baked product to rise • Air – trapped in product when it is beaten • Angel food cake • Steam – water in products heats and changes to steam • Popovers and cream puffs • Yeast – microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows • Needs food (flour and sugar), liquid, and a warm temperature to grow • Baking Soda – needs to react with an acid type substance • Produces carbon dioxide • Baking Powder – made of baking soda and a powdered acid substance • Produces carbon dioxide

  6. D. Fat – adds calories, richness, flavor, and tenderness to a baked product • Salad oils, butter, margarine, shortening are the most common • Solid and liquid fats are not easily substituted for one another • substitute solid shortening for butter or margarine • use mild-flavored cooking oils • Reducing Fats – applesauce or pureed dried fruits may be substituted to reduce calories

  7. E. Eggs – add flavor, nutrients, richness and color to a baked product • Also help to form the structure • To reduce fat – use two egg white or ¼ liquid egg substitute in place of one whole egg

  8. F.Sweeteners – helps make the baked product tender, adds sweetness, flavor, and helps the crust to brown. • White and brown sugar are the most common • Other Sweeteners – honey, corn syrup, molasses and powdered sugar • Some sugar substitutes are suitable for baking

  9. G. Flavorings – add flavor, texture, and a few nutrients to baked products. • Used in small amounts • Spices – some enhance flavor enough to allow less sugar to be used • Cinnamon and nutmeg • Extracts – vanilla and almond

  10. II. The Role of Gluten

  11. When flour and water are mixed together gluten develops • Becomes strong and elastic • Forms a network of tiny air cells • Air, steam, or gas produced by leavening agent is trapped in the cells • When heated the trapped gas expands and the product rises • The longer the mixing time the more gluten is developed • Quick breads – short mixing time *fine tender texture • Yeast breads – longer mixing time *coarser texture

  12. III. The Baking Process

  13. A. Oven Temperature – preheat the oven to ensure proper baking. • Too high – the crust will brown too fast and the inside may not bake completely. • Too low – may cause the baked product to dry out or become tough. • Pan Size • Use the correct size pan • if the pan is too large or small the product may not bake correctly. • Pan Materials • Light Colored Metal Pans • Most desirable for baking • Glass pans • Retains more heat than metal • Reduce oven temperature by 25° • Dark Metal Pans • Retain more heat than light colored pans • Can create a thicker crust • Reduce oven temperature by 10° • Pan Preparation – pans must be properly treated so foods can be easily removed. • Grease and flour • Spray with vegetable cooking spray • Line with parchment or wax paper

  14. Placing Pans in Oven • Allow for even air circulation • Do not allow pans to touch each other or sides of oven • Causes hot spots • Removing Baked Products From Pans • Follow recipe for cooling instructions • Placing on a cooling rack allows foods to cool faster and stay crisp • When cooled on a solid surface, moisture collects • Product may become soggy • Storing Baked Products • Perishable baked products need to be refrigerated • Cream fillings or frostings • Store other products at room temperature • Should be eaten within three days • For longer storage freeze in airtight containers

  15. IV. Other Means of Baking

  16. Microwave – cooks with a moist heat • Product does not brown • Steamed texture • Very tender and moist • Use recipes formulated for the microwave