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National Forest Policy & Sustainable Forest Management . by Arun K. Bansal , Former Addl. DG Forests, MOEF, GOI MCT for IFS Officers IV Phase – 20 th June 2013 . forest - a unique resource. Natural, Renewable, Global, National, Local importance

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National Forest Policy & Sustainable Forest Management

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    1. National Forest Policy & Sustainable Forest Management by Arun K. Bansal, Former Addl. DG Forests, MOEF, GOI MCT for IFS Officers IV Phase – 20th June 2013

    2. forest - a unique resource Natural, Renewable, Global, National, Local importance Indian Context: Large dependence of people for sustenance – fuel, fodder, NWFP, medicinal plants Long gestation period Three main functions: • Ecological • Social, • Commercial MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    3. Climate change • Forests are both sinks (80% of carbon stored in land vegetation & 40% of carbon in soils) and sources (25% of GHG released are from deforestation) . • Deforestation has important implications for CC. But deforestation figures do not reflect degradation – which causes loss of bio-diversity, soil erosion, and decline in biomass. • Reduction of Deforestation and degradation and increase in forest cover are important for mitigation & adaptation. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    4. Sustainable Forest Management MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    5. Sustainable Forest Management SFM - the term can be traced to the UN Conference on Environment and Development June 1992 – main outcome Inclusion of Social and Environmental dimensions besides economic aspects Major trend in Forest Policy development – focus from wood production to much broader environmental and social , economic and cultural issues. NLBI - “Forest Principles” and Chapter 11 of Agenda 21 (programme of action for sustainable development) refers to Forests MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    6. Forest Principles • The guiding objective of Forest Principles is to contribute to the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and to provide for their multiple and complimentary functions and uses. • Principle 2b specifically states “Forest resources and forest lands should be substantially managed to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of present and future generations.” MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    7. Global objectives on Forests agreed at sixth session of UNFF 2006 sustainable forest management (SFM) as the overarching principle for forest policy at both the national and international levels, and outlined future priorities in the form of the four Global Objectives on Forest (GOFs): Global objective 1 ; Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide through sustainable forest management, including protection, restoration, afforestation and reforestation, and increase efforts to prevent forest degradation; Global objective 2 : Enhance forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits, including by improving the livelihoods of forest dependent people; Global Objective 3 : Increase significantly the area of protected forests worldwide and other areas of sustainably managed forests, as well as the proportion of forest products derived from sustainably managed forests; Global objective 4 : Reverse the decline in official development assistance for sustainable forest management and mobilize significantly increased, new and additional financial resources from all sources for the implementation of sustainable forest management. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    8. Forest Instrument - NLBI The adoption of the forest instrument by the UN General Assembly in September 2007 reinforced the global commitment & described SFM as a dynamic and evolving concept intended to ‘Maintain and enhance the economic, social and environmental value of all types of forests for the benefit of present and future generations”. The seven thematic elements are: • Extent – area of forest resources • Forest Biological diversity – structure • Forest health and vitality • Production functions of forest resources • Protective function of forest resources • Socio-Economic functions of forests • Legal Policy and Institutional Framework MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    9. REDD Plus Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation, and Afforestation, conservation, SMF. The term used is Sustainable Management of Forests referring to forest management that maintains carbon stock at least at constant levels on average over time, in particular in the context of production forests. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    10. SFM Global situation FRA 2010 Globally the situation of forests - SFM – has remained stable over last 20 years- • Largest negatives – decrease in primary forests, wood removals, human resources in public forests, • Significant positives - increase in area designated for biological diversity PAs, area of planted forest, number of forestry graduates, MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    11. Important global forest facts (FRA 2010) • 31% of total land area – about 4 billion ha. – 0.6 ha per capita – ( forest rich countries - Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, USA, and China ~ 53% of TGFA ) • Primary forest around 36% of the forest area –planted forest is increasing – now around 7% of TFA (264 MHa) planted forest increased about 5 MHa per annum between 2000 -2010, • Legally established PAs is about 13% of TGFA – good for conservation of biological diversity- protection of soil and water resources, conservation of cultural heritage (sacred groves) • Rate of deforestation declining – but still alarmingly high – 16 million ha. annually in 1990s & 13 million ha. annually in 2000s - mainly conversion to agriculture, • Plantations are significantly reducing the net loss of forest • Forest store carbon – FRA 2010 – 652 billion tonnes carbon (~163 tonnes per ha. India – about 106 tonnes per ha.) • About 1.6 billion ha. Forest are under management plans – important for SFM! MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    12. Indicators of sustainability C&I supported by FAO – ITTO First set of guidelines for SM of Natural Tropical Forests in 1990, along with Criteria in 1991 They aim to contribute to SFM through the definition of Attributes (Criteria) and the measurement of progress (Indicators) MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    13. Bhopal India Process Bhopal India Process by IIFM under ITTO project 8 Criteria and 43 Indicators • Increase in extent of Forest & Tree Cover; • Maintenance, conservation and Enhancement of Bio-Diversity; • Maintenance and Enhancement of Ecosystem Function and vitality; • Conservation and Maintenance of Soil and water resources; • Maintenance and Enhancement of Forest Resources and Productivity; • Optimization and Forest Resource Utilization • Maintenance and Enhancement of Social, Cultural, and Spiritual Benefits; • Adequacy of Policy, Legal, and Institutional Framework Exercise to test the C&I at national level through 16 forest divisions, 6 states – revision of 14 working plans as per the C&I framework – incorporation of C&I in WP code deferred as per the directions of MoEF in a meeting held in February 2012. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    14. Forest Certification • Certification is a third party process (linked to international trade in forest products). • that forest management has reached the level required by a given standard - combined with a chain-of-custody certificate, certification allows products from a particular certified forest area to carry an eco label. • FSC (a voluntary non-profit organization -launched in 1993 or under PEFC Endorsement (membership-based global umbrella organization that provides a mutual recognition framework for national forest certification systems developed in a multi-stakeholder process)- Indian Forest certification Council?? • FSC Forest Management Certificate in India issued to a private rubber plantation in the State of Tamil Nadu on 676 ha area • Bhamragarh Division in Maharashtra certified by FSC effective from 12 Dec. 2012 as Well-Managed Forest {FSC’s Principles & Criteria - FCP Final Interim Standard for Forest Management Certificate in India} for D. strictus ( Bamboo) T. grandis (Teak), T. arjuna( Arjun), Bombaxceiba (Semal), Pterocarpusmarsupium ( Bija), D. sissoo ( Sheesham) –Round wood and Fuel wood. Certificate covers 3.78 lakh ha. - commercial bamboos - 2.39 lakh ha. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    15. SFM key word - 1 Forest – the resource – unique, natural, renewable; different functions – ecological, economic, socio-cultural; under severe pressure due to requirement of land for other purposes – agriculture, development projects, local area needs – biotic pressure grazing, wood energy, food, fire – natural degradation – slopes – landslides –forest fires; Components – area under forest, forest cover - structure – bio-diversity (forest type)- MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    16. SFM key word - 2 Management Area under working/management plans, management strategy – national working plan code - Supreme Court Orders – result of management. • Formerly, the predominant emphasis of forest management was on timber production and the policies/actions were timber centric, main focus was also on sustained yield of timber. In recent decades, management objectives encompass a much broader scope of forest goods (primacy to NTFP with timber being secondary) and ecosystem services, and also (with other lands having been occupied/encroached..) pressure on forest lands for other uses have also increased. • Management with community participation – Joint Forest Management MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    17. SFM key word - 3 Sustainable ? parameter of sustainability Area Canopy Cover - density Stand Structure - bio-diversity Production Ecological/Ecosystem services Others !!! MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    18. National Forest Policy 1988 MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    19. NATIONAL FOREST POLICY – 1988- The Game Changer • Environmental Stability & Ecological Balance 1 8 9 4 • Claims of Agriculture higher • Forest lands to be relinquished for agriculture • Functional classification of forests - 4 • RESERVATION OF FOREST AREAS • BEGINNING OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT • Balance & complimentary land use • Forest lands not to be encroached for agriculture • Claims of Neighbouring Communities • Tree lands, and increase in tree lands – agr., railway, roads etc. • ZAMINDARI ABOLITION, EXTENSION OF AGRICULTURE • SUSTAINED YIELD - TIMBER CENTRIC - REVENUE 1 9 5 2 1 9 8 8 • Diversion of forest lands after careful examination • Massive people’s movement for afforestation • Wood Substitution, Industries – raising plantations with farmers • COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION • FORESTS FOR ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGICAL STALIBILY MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    20. NFP 1988 -Salient features • Environmental stability – preservation and restoration of ecological balance. • Conservation of natural heritage by preserving remaining natural forests and protecting vast genetic resources. • Meeting basic needs of the people – fuel wood, fodder, small timber. • Maintaining intrinsic relationship of forests and tribal & other people living in and around forests. aims to achieve nature conservation and ecological balance while meeting essential requirements of the people MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    21. NFP, 1988 important provisions... • Area under forests or tree cover ~ minimum one third (2/3rd in hills & mountainous regions to prevent soil erosion and land degradation and ensure stability of fragile ecosystems) • Massive and need based/time bound programme of afforestation and tree planting • No forest working without government approved working plans. • No clear felling of natural forest for plantations • Wood substitution – railway sleepers, construction industry, furniture etc. • Substitution of fuel wood – with biogas, LPG, solar energy etc. & Fuel efficient Chulhas. • Diversion of Forests for non forest purposes – subject to most careful examination by specialists; • Wild life corridors linking protected areas to maintain genetic continuity. • Forest Based Industries to raise their raw material requirements preferably through direct relationship with individuals. • No concessional supply of forest produce to industry. • Scientific- complete survey of forest resources. • Investment on substantial scale in forest sector – forest not to be looked upon as a source of revenue MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    22. Proactive Judiciary • SC order - definition of “forest” • SC direction 1996 – green felling only with approved management plans approved by GoI • SC order 13 11 2000 - de-reservation of forests/NPs / sanctuaries only with SC approval • SC 9 5 2002 - No permission under WLPA, 197 (sec 29) without approval of Standing Committee of NBWL • SC order dated 30.10.2002 - NPV – in addition to CA, CAT, .. to be charged before II stage (final) approval. • CAMPA orders – use of funds for regeneration of forests MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    23. Social - Rights of the People • Reservation – village forests or tree lands for people’s needs – used for extension of Agr. – encroached; • Settlement of encroachments Pre 1980 eligible iff Govt. has evolved eligibility criteria and has taken a decision to regularize before 25 1 0 1980 but not implemented; • Ineligible encroachments to be treated at par with post 1980 encroachments; • Disputed claims over forests arsing out of forest settlements: after proper identification, enquiry, and decision for restoration- then obtain prior approval under FCA MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    24. Social - Rights of the People • Conversion of forest villages > revenue villages (guidelines approved by the Union Cabinet in 1990)- after de-notifying requisite land as forest with prior approval of GoI (FCA -with map delineating external boundaries of land wherein pattas have been issued - the rights to be heritable but inalienable, and these and other enclosed villages be preferably administered by SFD • Regularization the rights of tribals on forest lands – Feb. 2004 (traditional rights) following prior approval under FCA 1980 in a fixed time within one year. • FRA 2006 –primacy of Gram Sabha ~ JFMCs • 3.64 lakh ha. Encroachment regularized – 11 states • 0.41 lakh ha. Conversion of 466 forest villages – 4 states MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    25. Social- Joint Forest Management JFM - starting formally in 1990 (in the background of community initiatives/involvement in several states – Uttrakhand, West Bengal, Odisha etc.). Social Equity - more than Forest conservation & Supply of forest products. JFM now extends to all states with about 1.20 lakh JFM Committees involving about 145 lakh families (of which around 50% are SC & ST families) managing 22.938 MHa. of forest land ~ 25% of TFA MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    26. Common features of State JFMs Mostly under resolution – except UttaraKhand, Karnataka, Rajasthan • Basic unit is hamlet, village or group of villages. • All willing families are entitled to join. • Committee formed - called by different nomenclatures, JFMC, VFPC, VSS • Executive Committee is elected body to take care of day to day activities • Forest official is ex-officio Member Secretary (except Odisha) • Representation from Local Government in EC and GB • Except for certain Nationalized NTFPs, JFMCs are allowed free collection of NTFPs. • Forest Department and JFMCs jointly prepare Micro Plan for forest area through PRA. • The JFMCs are either registered with FD or in many states are registered as Societies under Charitable Societies Act. • Members can collect fuel wood, fodder, Medicinal Plants and food as per the provisions of micro plans. In 15 states in respect of 77262 JFMCs, benefit per JFMC in term of fuel wood, fodder, NTFP etc. works out to Rs. 2.50 lakh per annum (ICFRE 2011) MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    27. Evolution of JFM to JFM+ With the experience of last 20 years and recent lessons learnt through JICA forestry projects, JFM approach is now set to graduate to JFM+ by involving livelihood issues in addition to protection, conservation, and management. 12th FY Plan Steering Committee “…..JFM also needs to be evolved into a higher platform“JFM Plus” where the livelihood promotion of the communities, especially women Self Help Groups (SHGs) formed for such activities, gets increased importance in the conservation and development of forests. To achieve this, JFMCs are required to be adequately and strategically revitalized and empowered. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    28. Forest Management National Working Plan Code, 2004 - under revision - draft prepared by FRI – key inputs – use of GIS technology, assessments of Growing Stock, Carbon, Bio-diversity, Estimation of NWFP including MAPs, despite provisions etc. What is the actual status ? % forest area covered by WPs? Implementation status? • Special focus – 13th Finance Commission Grant – after two years linked with progress of approved WPs 80% (of what – divisions or forest area) MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    29. Production from Forests Conservation oriented forest management • Wood - 3.175 MM3 (Forest), (0.07% of GS 4498.73 MM3 - 42.77 MM3 (ToF) - Consumption – 48 MM3 • Fuel Wood – 1.23 MM3(Forest), 19.25 MM3 (ToF) - consumption (Forests) – 58.75 MM3 MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    30. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    31. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    32. Afforestation • Agro/Farm Forestry & Forest Regeneration • State Plans • National Afforestation Program – SFDA - FDAs • National Bamboo Mission • Externally Aided Projects • CAMPA • GIM MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    33. Forestry Research & Education • ICFRE an autonomous organization – for forestry research and education – with Institute and centres across the country • IIFM, IPIRTI, • State FRIs • FRI - deemed university – 1991 • Number of universities - graduate/post graduate course in forestry • Training the foresters • IGNFA • CASFOS • Forest Range Officers • Frontline staff – CB programme – funding from JICA MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    34. NFP 1988 embodies all elements of SFM: Ecological, Social, and Economic Indian Forestry is having largely social oriented approach of SFM while prime objective is environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance, which is vital for sustenance of all life forms. Economic/ commercial aspect is on low side. NFP a national public policy is the enunciation of guiding principles in managing a national resource – though not justiciable The field officers need to always keep these points in their mind while implementing various plans and schemes. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    35. Thanks

    36. MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    37. Forest Cover change Matrix MCT for IFS officers - IGNFA - TERI - June 2013

    38. Life Cycle Analysis