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MIS442: Business Applications with Object-Oriented Paradigm (OO-Programming Aspects). Professor Chen School of Business Gonzaga University Spokane, WA 99258 chen@gonzaga.edu. What is a PARADIGM?. A paradigm is a way of viewing things and thinking about things.

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mis442 business applications with object oriented paradigm oo programming aspects
MIS442: Business Applications with Object-Oriented Paradigm (OO-Programming Aspects)

Professor Chen

School of Business

Gonzaga University

Spokane, WA 99258

chen@gonzaga.edu

what is a paradigm
What is a PARADIGM?
  • A paradigm is a way of viewing things and thinking about things.
  • In the last two decades (mid 1970’s to the present) popular paradigms have been used:

Process ---> Data ---> O-O

Modeling Modeling Modeling

(DFD) (E/R) (UML, OMT)

what is the methodology
Methodology is a series of steps with techniques and notations associated with each step.

Concepts

Techniques

Notations

Steps

What is the Methodology?
object oriented methodology
OBJECT-ORIENTED METHODOLOGY
  • The technique of object-oriented (OO) methodology really has emerged only in the last five to six years (early 1990’s).
  • The O-O methods organize both information and the processing that amanipulates the information, according to the real-world objects that the information describes.
an object is
An OBJECT is ...

Object = Data structure + Behavior

(attributes) (operations)

where Behavior is in a single entity.

why o o advantages objectives
Why O-O? (Advantages / Objectives)
  • Understanding problems
  • Communicating with application experts
  • Modeling enterprises
  • Preparing documentation
  • Designing programs and databases
definition of o o vs conventional programming
Definition of O-O vs. Conventional Programming
  • O-O organizing software as a collection of discrete objects that incorporate both data structure and behavior.
  • Conventional programming: data structure and behavior are only loosely connected.
ii what is object oriented programming language oop
II. What is OBJECT-ORIENTED Programming Language (OOP)?

OOP = Objects + Inheritance + Polymorphism

ii what is object oriented programming oop
II. What is OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP)?

OOP = Objects + Inheritance + Polymorphism

object based vs object oriented languages
Object-Based vs. Object-Oriented Languages
  • An object-based language is one in which data and operationscan be incorporated (encapsulated) in such a way that data values can be isolated and accessed through the specified class functions.
  • An object-oriented language provides inheritance and polymorphism in addition to the features in an object-based language.
programming in the large
PROGRAMMING IN THE LARGE
  • In order to deal with large-scale programming, we must have some way of attacking a problem in a systematic way and managing its complexity ...
systems software development life cycle slc sdlc
Systems/Software (Development) Life Cycle (SLC/SDLC)
  • A method that provides information systems professionals with step-by-step procedures to develop their projects/systems.
  • SOFTWARE ENGINEERING ...
phases of systems software development life cycle slc sdlc
Phases of Systems/Software (Development) Life Cycle (SLC/SDLC)
  • Conceptualization
  • (Requirements) Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Testing and Verification
  • Operation, Follow-up, and Maintenance
1 conceptualization
1. Conceptualization
  • Prepare a complete and unambiguous problem statement.
  • Users and analysts sign the requirements document.
2 requirements analysis
2. (Requirements) Analysis
  • Understand the problem: develop a system behavior model and determine problem input, output, and other relevant data elements.
  • Name each identified data element and develop a model of the essential characteristics (attributes and operations) for each element.
3 design
3. Design
  • Using the system and data models developed during requirements analysis, perform a top-down design of the system.
  • For each system component, identify key data elements and subordinate functions using structure charts.
4 implementation
4. Implementation
  • Write algorithms and pseudocode descriptions of individual functions.
  • Code the solution.
  • Debug the code.
5 testing and verification
5. Testing and Verification
  • Test the code, verifying that it is correct. Each data modeling component should be tested separately, before all components are tested as an integrated whole.
  • Involve users and special testing teams in all system tests.
6 operation follow up and maintenance
6. Operation, Follow-up, and Maintenance
  • Run the completed system.
  • Evaluate its performance.
  • Remove new bugs as they are detected.
  • Make required changes to keep the system up to date.
  • Verify that changes are correct and that they do not adversely affect the system’s operation.
software engineering goals that drive object use
Software Engineering Goals That Drive Object Use
  • Why should we base our programming around objects?
  • Advantages follow ...
1 ease of design and code reuse
1. Ease of Design and Code Reuse
  • Once the code works properly, the use of objects increases your ability to reuse a design or code you created for one application within a second application.

...

REUSABILITY

2 increased reliability
2. Increased Reliability
  • Once proper testing has been previously performed on object libraries, the use of existing (working) code will improve your program’s reliability.
3 ease of understanding
3. Ease of Understanding
  • By allowing designers and programmers to focus on smaller pieces of a system and providing a framework within which designers can identify objects, the operations performed on the objects, and the information objects must store, object use helps programmers focus on and understand key system components.
4 increased abstraction
4. Increased Abstraction
  • Abstraction lets designers and programmers “look at the big picture”--- temporarily ignore underlying details so they can work with system elements that are more easily understood. For example, by focusing only on the word processor objects earlier in this chapter, the implementation of a word processor became much less intimidating.
5 increased encapsulation
5. Increased Encapsulation
  • Encapsulation groups all of the pieces of an object into one neat package. For example, the file class previously defined in this chapter combines the functions and data fields a program needs to work with a file.
5 increased encapsulation conti
5. Increased Encapsulation (Conti.)
  • The programmer who is working with the file class does not need to know each piece of the class, only that they need to use the class within their program. The class, in turn, will bring with it all the necessary pieces.
6 increased information hiding
6. Increased Information Hiding
  • Information hiding is the ability for your program to treat a function, procedure, or even an object, as a “black box,” using the item to perform a specific operation without having to know what goes on inside. In Chapter 1, for example, your programs used I/O stream objects for input and output without having to understand how the streams work.