the school mental health imperative n.
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  1. THE SCHOOL MENTAL HEALTH IMPERATIVE Mark Weist Ph. D. Steven Adelsheim, M.D. March 3, 2003

  2. “Could someone help me with these? I’m late for math class.”

  3. Prevalence of Childhood Mental Health Problems • About 20% of children and adolescents (15 million), ages 9 to 17, have diagnosable mental health disorders • Between 9-13% of children, ages 9-17 years, meet the definition of serious emotional disturbance (SED) that limits their ability to function in the family, school, and community • An estimated 70% of those identified are not getting the mental health treatment they need

  4. Proven, Successful Treatments Exist for Most Disorders Treatment success rates: • 80% for major depression • 65% for bipolar disorder • 60% for schizophrenia • 45% for heart disease

  5. Mental Health and Disability • Mental illness is the leading cause of disability (25%) in Western Europe,Canada, and U.S. • Global Burden of Disease study predicts that major depression will become the second leading cause of disability in the world by the year 2010 • By 2020, childhood neuropsychiatric disorders will rise by over 50% internationally to become one of the 5 most common causes of morbidity, mortality, disability

  6. The Cost of Mental Illness in the United States In addition to the overwhelming human suffering: • $63 billion in lost productivity due to work absence, SSI • $12 billion in lost productivity due to premature death • $6 billion incurred costs to incarcerate the 250,000 inmates with serious mental illness • 1997 estimated total U.S. cost of mental illnesses was $148 billion.

  7. Surgeon General’s Suicide Data -1997 • Rate for ages * 10-14 - 1.6 /100,000 * 15-19 - 9.7 /100,000 * 20-24 - 14.5 /100,000 • For young people 15-24, suicide is third leading cause of death • In 1996, more youth and young adults died from suicide than cancer, heart disease, AIDS, stroke, pneumonia, & birth defects COMBINED

  8. Leading Causes of Death in 15-19 Year Olds in the United States in 2000— U N I T E D S T A T E S, 2000 — 1631 CAUSE # OF DEATHS Accidents 6573 Homicide 1861 Suicide 1574 Cancer/Leukemia 759 Heart Disease 372 Congenital Anomalies 213 Lung Disease 151 Stroke 60 Diabetes 40 Blood Poisoning 36 HIV 36 NCHS 2001, preliminary

  9. 1999 Surgeon-General’s Report on Children’s Mental Health “There is no mental health equivalent to the federal government’s commitment to childhood immunization”

  10. Interim Report of President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health “Our Nation’s failure to prioritize mental health is a national tragedy. So many lives are at stake, so many families and communities struggle to stay afloat.” October 29,2002

  11. STIGMA and Children’s Mental Health • 1999 study said 71% thought mental illness caused by emotional weakness, 65% from bad parenting, 35% from immoral or sinful behavior (Hinckley, 1999) • 66% of people with diagnosable MH problems do not see treatment, especially true for rural areas and adolescents • Lack of public willingness to pay for treatment

  12. Issues in Appropriate Assessment for Mental Health Problems • Less than 50% of adolescents with significant treatable mental health disorders are correctly identified as having problems by school counselors • Pediatricians correctly identify 35% of those with diagnosable mental disorders • Parents are only generally able to identify acting out problems

  13. An Attitudinal Shift Towards Children’s Mental Health Programs • Public Health perspective similar to that for immunizations, sexually transmitted diseases • Put children’s services on equal financial footing as adult programs if we really believe in prevention and early identification • Equal focus for children’s services at federal, state, and local systems • University training systems prioritize children services

  14. Anytown, USA • People don’t know about or care about youth mental health issues or view them with stigma • Limited evaluation/consultative services in the schools for youth in special education • Limited treatment services for youth who act out in community centers and private offices

  15. Anytown 2 • Significant, unaddressed mental health needs in child welfare and juvenile justice • Child serving agencies operating with significant bureaucracy and passivity • There is no system of care • Quality improvement and evaluation are limited if non existent

  16. Promiseland, USA • The public recognizes the critical importance of youth mental health and is ENGAGED • Policymakers are responsive and resources are growing progressively • Major child serving systems are joining with families, youth and other stakeholders to plan and continuously improve systems of education, youth development and care

  17. Promiseland 2 • The full continuum of mental health promotion and intervention is being implemented in schools through family-school-community partnerships • There is a major emphasis on quality improvement, evaluation, and building and using the evidence base • Positive outcomes for youth, families, schools, and communities are being demonstrated

  18. Why is School Mental Health so Critical to this Vision? • Because there is probably no approach with as much promise to change paradigms and move the country from an illness care to health promoting perspective: • Focus on youth -- our future • Schools, the most universal natural setting • Connecting to a central mission of society

  19. Major Approaches to Mental Health in Schools • Enabling Framework (Adelman and Taylor) • Other Education-Based • School-Based Health Centers • Community Mental Health Center Outreach • Private Practitioner Outreach • Communities in Schools

  20. Expanded School Mental Health (ESMH) • ESMH programs join staff and resources from education and other community systems • to develop a full array of mental health promotion and intervention programs and services • for youth in general and special education

  21. Positive Outcomes of ESMH Programs are Being Shown • Outreach to under-served youth • Productivity of staff • Cost-effectiveness • Improved satisfaction • Improved student outcomes • Improved school- and system- level outcomes

  22. Progressive Growth of ESMH Also Being Propelled By: • Increasing recognition of mutual benefits to schools and other community systems • Prominent federal developments (Surgeon General’s reports, Safe Schools/Healthy Students, No Child Left Behind) • Increasing training and technical assistance • Bridging of research and practice • Growing international dialogue

  23. But the movement toward ESMH is still in the early phases • ESMH estimated to be in less than 10% of the nation’s 114,000 schools • A concerning trend toward clinics in schools • Funding remains limited and illness-focused

  24. Major Categories of Work to Advance Mental Health in Schools • Raising awareness of unmet youth mental health needs and building advocacy • Involving youth, families and other stakeholders • Influencing policy and growing a diverse array of funding mechanisms • Applying new resources strategically

  25. Major Categories of Work II • Enhancing methods of early identification and screening • Broadening and improving training at all levels and for diverse disciplines • Strengthening quality assessment and improvement approaches

  26. Major Categories of Work III • Coordinating services in schools and making progress toward true systems of care • Addressing areas of special need • Emphasizing prevention and broad efforts to promote youth mental health • Supporting, using, and building the evidence base

  27. Impacts of September 11 • Increasing recognition that mental health issues and problems are universal • Underscoring significant capacity problems in mental health systems

  28. Impacts of September 11, cont. • Increasing support for expanded school mental health • Propelling advocacy, coalition building, and the breaking down of entrenched boundaries and bureaucratic obstacles

  29. Media Issues • Journalistic media pay very little attention to child and adolescent mental health • Entertainment media present mental illness in a “stereotypic and blatantly negative” light. Mentally ill are presented as “objects of amusement, derision or fear” (Granello & Pauley, 2002)

  30. Toward Interdisciplinary Work Guided by Stakeholders • Close collaborative relations among and between: • professionals of different disciplines • non- and para-professionals • the stakeholders (e.g., youth, families, community leaders) • “being in the trenches, shoulder to shoulder with the teachers, students and families, trying to make a difference”

  31. The Optimal School Mental Health Continuum? • 10-20% Broad Environmental Improvement and Mental Health Promotion • 50-60% Prevention and Early Intervention • 20-30% Intensive Assessment and Treatment

  32. To Move Toward This Continuum We Need To Address The Over-Reliance On Fee-For-Service • Need to diagnose • Significant bureaucracy • Limits on productivity • Contingencies to hold on to youth and families who show up and can pay

  33. Toward Funding for a Full Continuum of Programs and Services • Maximizing all potential sources of revenue: • allocations from schools and departments of education • state and local grants and contracts • federal and foundation grants and contracts • innovative prevention funding • fee-for-service

  34. Under-Explored Funding Approaches • Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) • Transitional Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) • Safe and Drug Free Schools funds

  35. Youth Mental Health Services in Most Communities

  36. The Vision

  37. Deciding on Roles in a School(no stereotyping intended)

  38. Using the Evidence Base • A major feature of school-based mental health from the beginning • Perhaps the most dominant issue in child and adolescent mental health research • We can lead the way in school mental health • Significant work and opportunities ahead

  39. Using the Evidence Base in Context

  40. Lessons from Dialogue with Other Countries • US focus is primarily on illness in individuals • Tremendous variability in US experience can be a real barrier to communication and to progress

  41. The Australian MindMatters Program • Mapping and managing mental health resources in schools • School-wide training • resilience • bullying and harassment • grief and loss • understanding mental illness

  42. International Network for Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Schools • Planning meetings in Virginia Beach (98), Denver (99), Atlanta (00), Paris (01) and London (02) • Network established in November, 2002 • Over 100 members from over 20 countries • First meeting October 22, 2003, Portland Oregon

  43. New Mexico Facts (We Still Have a Lot of Work to Do) • Greatest Percentage of Children Living in Poverty • Greatest Percentage of Teens Not in School/Working • 2nd Highest Teen Dropout Rate • 2nd Highest Teen Death Rate Due to Accident, Suicide, Homicide • 6th Highest Teen Suicide Rate • 3rd Worst Health Statistics of All States

  44. State of New Mexico Governor’s Office State Board of Education Human Services Department Department of Health Children, Youth and Families Department State Department of Education Income Support Division Behavioral Health Division Others Child Protective Services School Health Unit Others Public Health Division Prevention And Intervention Medical Assistance Division Special Education Division Office of School Health Juvenile Justice Division Others Cimarron Salud Presbyterian Salud Lovelace Salud

  45. New Mexico School Behavioral Health Partnership • Office of School Health $300,000 • Behavioral Health Division $400,000 • CYFD-Prev. & Interv. $320,000 • Dept of Ed.-Spec.Ed. $165,000 • Dept. of Ed.-School Health $350,000 • Fed. M H Block Grant $140,000 • HSD-Med. Asst. Div. $84,000