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Classical Civilizations. Ancient Greece. Topic 2.1. Ancient Greece. 2200 B.C. – 1400 B.C. Indo-European people migrated to the island known as CRETE By 1600 B.C., this civilization known as “Minoan” is at its height . - Cities/Record-keeping/Religion

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ancient greece
Ancient Greece

2200 B.C. – 1400 B.C. Indo-European people migrated to the island known as CRETE

By 1600 B.C., this civilization known as “Minoan” is at its height.

- Cities/Record-keeping/Religion

- Trade depot with other civilizations

1600 B.C.-1100 B.C. Mycenaean people from mainland Greece took

power in Crete.

(Simply took over the palaces and little changed in countryside)

1150 B.C. Mycenaean civilization destroyed by unknown invaders

1100 B.C. – 800 B.C. The Greek “Dark Ages”

- Writings lost

- Backward slide of civilization occurred

- May have been the time period of the Trojan Wars

hellenistic greece
Hellenistic Greece

800 B.C. – 500 B.C. Archaic Age

A period of rebuilding civilization occurred in the Greek world.

City-States (Literally….. Each City is its own Country)

Wealthy aristocrats ran the civilization. Owned all the wealth.

Established trading towns in Present-Day Syria and Egypt.

Exchanged ideas, technology and philosophy as well as goods.

Developed “Hoplite” soldier

*** Population BOOMED during this time, and overcrowding occurred. The Greek solution was to forcibly send entire communities and families to colonies on the Aegean coast and islands in the sea.

hellenistic greece1
Hellenistic Greece

500 B.C. – 300 B.C. Classic Age

The Crisis of the “Old Order” – The end of aristocratic control

The control of the old aristocracy ended due to many factors:

- Wealthy got too wealthy

- Ideas from other cultures caused both rich and poor to question the imbalance of wealth.

- The society as a whole looked for ways to

address injustice, political order, and human freedom.

The solution to the crisis was the creation of the “Polis”

Polis = Greek City-State

hellenistic greece2
Hellenistic Greece

500 B.C. – 300 B.C. Classic Age

“There is no end to the wealth; for those of us who have the most possessions rush to double them”

- Salon of Athens

political systems
Political Systems

Based on Greek political structures

Monarchy – Power is in the hands of ONE individual (King)

Aristocracy – Power is in the hands of rich nobles or


Oligarchy – Ruled by a FEW, especially when rule is based on wealth (Greek City-States)

Democracy– Government is controlled by its CITIZENS


(Ancient Athens)

Republic – Power is in the hands of Representatives and those leaders are elected by the people



The Persian Wars

(490 BC – 479 BC)

The combined Greek city-states vs. Persia

Persians: People of the New Empire that Ranged from India, across Mesopotamia, to present-day Turkey



Phalanx Formation

Revolutionized Battle for the Greeks:

Units could change direction and attack

Sent wave after wave with a single unit

Shields protected all sides….even the top like a turtle


Effects of the Persian Wars:

  • New confidence and freedom for Greek city-states
  • Establishment of direct democracy in Athens
  • Athens became *leader* of the 140 city-state Delian League
  • City States strengthened their navies and overseas trade

(wealth used to create great works including the Parthenon)

  • Allowed for a “Golden Age” of prosperity and development of:

Greek art

Greek drama

Growth of philosophy


Alexander the Great

King Philip II of Macedonia united Greece under Macedonian Rule

His son Alexander was educated in Greece by Aristotle

Philip assassinated in 336 B.C.

Alexander inherited the throne (age 16) with Philip’s massive army







His empire extended to present-day India and ended the Greek City-State system


Alexander the Great

Alexander’s conquests ushered in the “Helenistic” Age of prosperity through “Cultural Diffusion”






Greek culture spread towards India while Asian culture was shared with Greece

Egyptian City of Alexandria became the center of his empire


Alexander the Great

  • Last Battle of Alexander
  • (Tried to conquer India)
  • believed that the edge of the world lay beyond India and forced his army to fight against an unknown foe

Search for Alexander’s Tomb


The People of Classical Greece

  • Citizens– free born men who owned property
  • Non-citizens – women, slaves, and foreigners
            • Rights for citizens included:
            • -Voting
            • -Passing laws
            • -Speaking at public meetings
          • Responsibilities included
          • -Participating in the government
          • -Paying taxes
          • -Serving in the military
          • (Sparta – life-long career)
          • -Following (obeying) laws
  • **Do we have these rights and responsibilities today in America???

The Ancient Greeks Gave Us:

        • The Olympic Games
        • Philosophers like Aristotle, Sophocles, Plato
        • - Influence of architecture (U.S. state buildings)
        • Democratic ideals
        • Math/science
        • - Balance and proportion in architecture
        • - Columns

Great Thinkers of the Empire

      • Eratosthenes (closely calculated the Earth’s true size)
      • Aristarchus (Sun is larger than the Earth, and Earth and
      • other planets revolve around Sun)
      • Hipparchus latitude and longitude
      • Euclid geometry
      • Archimedes mechanics (lever)
      • Concept of Pi = 3.14 (and so on)
      • Pythagoras multiple mathematical formulas
      • …most famously…
      • Pythagorean Theorem

Ancient Rome

  • Topic 2.2