Classical Civilizations. Ancient Greece. Topic 2.1. Ancient Greece. 2200 B.C. – 1400 B.C. Indo-European people migrated to the island known as CRETE By 1600 B.C., this civilization known as “Minoan” is at its height . - Cities/Record-keeping/Religion
2200 B.C. – 1400 B.C. Indo-European people migrated to the island known as CRETE
By 1600 B.C., this civilization known as “Minoan” is at its height.
- Trade depot with other civilizations
1600 B.C.-1100 B.C. Mycenaean people from mainland Greece took
power in Crete.
(Simply took over the palaces and little changed in countryside)
1150 B.C. Mycenaean civilization destroyed by unknown invaders
1100 B.C. – 800 B.C. The Greek “Dark Ages”
- Writings lost
- Backward slide of civilization occurred
- May have been the time period of the Trojan Wars
800 B.C. – 500 B.C. Archaic Age
A period of rebuilding civilization occurred in the Greek world.
City-States (Literally….. Each City is its own Country)
Wealthy aristocrats ran the civilization. Owned all the wealth.
Established trading towns in Present-Day Syria and Egypt.
Exchanged ideas, technology and philosophy as well as goods.
Developed “Hoplite” soldier
*** Population BOOMED during this time, and overcrowding occurred. The Greek solution was to forcibly send entire communities and families to colonies on the Aegean coast and islands in the sea.
500 B.C. – 300 B.C. Classic Age
The Crisis of the “Old Order” – The end of aristocratic control
The control of the old aristocracy ended due to many factors:
- Wealthy got too wealthy
- Ideas from other cultures caused both rich and poor to question the imbalance of wealth.
- The society as a whole looked for ways to
address injustice, political order, and human freedom.
The solution to the crisis was the creation of the “Polis”
Polis = Greek City-State
500 B.C. – 300 B.C. Classic Age
“There is no end to the wealth; for those of us who have the most possessions rush to double them”
- Salon of Athens
Based on Greek political structures
Monarchy – Power is in the hands of ONE individual (King)
Aristocracy – Power is in the hands of rich nobles or
Oligarchy – Ruled by a FEW, especially when rule is based on wealth (Greek City-States)
Democracy– Government is controlled by its CITIZENS
either DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY
Republic – Power is in the hands of Representatives and those leaders are elected by the people
(ROMAN REPUBLIC and THE UNITED STATES)
(490 BC – 479 BC)
The combined Greek city-states vs. Persia
Persians: People of the New Empire that Ranged from India, across Mesopotamia, to present-day Turkey
Revolutionized Battle for the Greeks:
Units could change direction and attack
Sent wave after wave with a single unit
Shields protected all sides….even the top like a turtle
(wealth used to create great works including the Parthenon)
Growth of philosophy
King Philip II of Macedonia united Greece under Macedonian Rule
His son Alexander was educated in Greece by Aristotle
Philip assassinated in 336 B.C.
Alexander inherited the throne (age 16) with Philip’s massive army
His empire extended to present-day India and ended the Greek City-State system
Alexander’s conquests ushered in the “Helenistic” Age of prosperity through “Cultural Diffusion”
Greek culture spread towards India while Asian culture was shared with Greece
Egyptian City of Alexandria became the center of his empire
Search for Alexander’s Tomb