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INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL MATTERS. NATIONAL SOVEREIGNITY. Exclusive and excluding power: Definition of crimes (Penal Law) Organize the police estructures: Prevention and investigation Organize the judicial estructures:Investigation, prosecution and trial

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INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.


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    1. INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.

    2. NATIONAL SOVEREIGNITY Exclusive and excluding power: Definition of crimes (Penal Law) Organize the police estructures: Prevention and investigation Organize the judicial estructures:Investigation, prosecution and trial Organize the estructure: Serving sentences

    3. INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE: A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLITICAL AUTHORITIES

    4. DIFICULTIES INHERENT TO MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE A.- Different lenguages. B.- Diverse judicial systems. - Competent executing authority. - Competent authority according to the territory. C.- The existence of different rules for penal procedure. D.- The existence of different Penal Law. E.- Stremely slow mecanisms in order to transmit the request for Mutual Legal Assistance. F.- The lack of measures to follow up and control of the execution of MLA requests.

    5. DIFFICULTIES INHERENT TO MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE .Double incrimination. . Protection for own nationals. .Cumbersome proceedings in the requested countries in order to examine that procedural garanties will be accomplished. Absence of mutual reliance. . A certain field for discretionality: The defense of national interest and of the public order.

    6. EUROPEAN SPACE OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND LIBERTY

    7. SOLUTIONS • The direct contact between judicial concerned authorities.

    8. SOLUTIONS • The direct contact between concerned judicial authorities. • The aproximation of Penal Laws and Penal Procedural Laws..

    9. .Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 27-1-2003, relativa a la protección del medio ambiente a través del Derecho Penal. • .Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 28-11-2002, relativa a reforzar el marco penal para la represión de la ayuda a la entrada, circulación y estancia irregular. • .Directiva 2002/90/CE del Consejo, de 28-11-2002, destinada a definir la ayuda a la entrada, circulación y estancia irregular. • .Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 19-7-2002, relativa a la trata de seres humanos. • . Decisión Marco sobre el delito de terrorismo adoptada por el Consejo el 13 de Junio del 2002. • . Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 26 de Junio del 2001, sobre el delito de blanqueo de dinero, identificación, seguimiento, inmovilización, embargo, y confiscación de los instrumentos y efectos procedentes de delito. • . Decisión Marco , adoptada el 6-12-2001, en relación con la falsificación del Euro. • . Decisión Marco, adoptada el 28 de Mayo del 2001, en relación con los delitos derivados de la utilización de instrumentos de pago distintos del dinero. • . Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 15-3-2001, relativa al estatuto de la victima en el proceso penal. SOLUCIONES:A APROXIMACION DE LAS LEGISLACIONES

    10. SOLUTIONS • The direct contact betwen concerned judicial authorities. • Apromximation of Penal Laws and Penal Procedural Laws. • Mutual recognition of judicial decisions. • Common european mechanisms for evaluation. • To create proceedings allowing the competent authorities of one concerned country to act inside the territory of another one: joint investigating teams; hot pursuits; under cover agents. Joint investigating teams. • To create structures in order to facilitate MLA.

    11. NEW STRUCTURES IN ORDER TO FACILITATE MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE A.- Liaison magistrates. B.- The European Judicial Network. C.- EUROJUST

    12. LIAISON MAGISTRATES Common Action 22 April 1996. Low legal effect. Creates a frame work allowing the exchange of liaison magistrates, based in bilateral or multilateral agreements: Between Member states of the EU? No procedural rules on international MLA are concerned

    13. LIAISON MAGISTRATES • Objectives: • Improve eficiency of MLA • -Facilitate the knowledge of different judicial systems • - Facilitate the fight against transnational organized crime • Profile: Expert in MLA.

    14. LIAISON MAGISTRATES Functions: a) Any activity aiming to speed up and push all kind of judicial cooperation, through direct contact with the competent authorities. b). Scope: Any kind of judicial cooperation, not only in criminal matters, but in civil ones too. c). Exchange of information ans statistics aiming to promote the mutual knowledge of the different systems ans the existence of data bases.

    15. LIAISON MAGISTRATES • SPAIN: • United Kingdoom: ALED WILLIAMS • France: Samuel Vuelta Simon. • Spain: Manuel García Castellón.(France) • Spain: Angel Llorente (Morocco) • Morocco: • FRANCE

    16. EUROJUST, ONE STEP MORE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EUROPEAN SPACE OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND LIBERTY.

    17. LEGAL FRAMEWORK Council Framework Decission of 28th February2002

    18. ¿ WHAT DOES EUROJUST CONSIST IN ? A body of the European Union. With its own legal personality. With budgetarian initiative.

    19. -      COMPOSITION .National Members: Each Member State appoints one NM ( judge, prosecutor or police officer having similar powers). Only NM are entitled to vote in the College. .One or more assistants (optional) who helps and replaces the NM.

    20. EUROJUST FUNCTIONS Coordination Cooperation

    21. EUROJUST FUNCTIONSCOOPERATION To improve cooperation between the competent authorities of the MS, in particular facilitating the execution of international MLA and the implementation of extradition requests. The traditional way to investigate.

    22. EUROJUST FUNCTIONSCOORDINATION To stimulate and improve the coordination of investigations and prosecutions in the Member States, taking in account any request emanating from a competent authority of a MS and any information provided. A new way to investigate organized crime.

    23. TWO WAYS IN ORDER TO FULFILL ITS FUNCTIONS. A.- As a College. B.- Through one or more National Members.

    24. EUROJUST POWERS -A) To ASK (request) the competent authorities: - To undertake an investigation or prosecution of specifis acts. - To accept that one of them may be in a better position to undertake an investigation or to prosecute specific facts. -To coordinate between the competent authorities of the MS concerned. - To set up a joint investigation team. - To provide it with any information that is necessary to Eurojust in order to carry out its tasks.

    25. EUROJUST FIELD OF ACTIVITY.COMPETENCES. Serious crimes. Organized Crime Transnational crimes

    26. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO THE PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA A- Transmisión.

    27. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA B- Different languages.

    28. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA C-Different judicial systems.

    29. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA D- Absence of follow up and control in the execution of MLA requests.

    30. Eurojust More Effective Co-ordination & Co-operation

    31. THE COORDINATION OF INVESTIGATIONS AND PROSECUTION AS AN SPECIFIC TASK FOR EUROJUST The fight against organized crime