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Volcano Notes. Anatomy of a volcano. tephra. vent/crater. lava. pipe. l ayers of volcanic material. magma chamber. 3 Types Volcanic Materials. Magma - hot - melted rock (molten) - beneath the Earth’s surface. 2 . Lava - hot - molten rock

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anatomy of a volcano
Anatomy of a volcano

tephra

vent/crater

lava

pipe

layers of volcanic material

magma chamber

3 types volcanic materials
3 Types Volcanic Materials
  • Magma- hot

- melted rock (molten)

- beneath the Earth’s surface

slide5

2. Lava- hot

- molten rock

- flowing on Earth’s surface

slide6

3. Tephra-lava that is blasted into the air

- turns solid as it falls back to the

ground

slide7

Examples of tephra:

ash, cinders, and volcanic bombs

(*pyroclastic material*)

slide10

3 Factors that Affect the Explosiveness of Volcanoes

1. Amount of trapped gases and water vapor

slide12

Just like a closed soda can, the pressure builds when shaken.

  • In a volcano, the more gas that is trapped, increases pressure, and makes the eruption more explosive
slide13

3 Factors that Affect the Explosiveness of Volcanoes

Composition and viscosity of magma

The elements and minerals that make up the melted rock determine how explosive an eruption will be.

High amounts of silica increase the viscosity of the magma.

slide15

Basaltic magma is relatively liquid (low viscosity ; low silica content) when melted and is not usually explosive

slide16

Rhyolitic magma is very thick (high viscosity ; high silica content) when molten, and therefore very explosive

slide17

3 Factors that Affect the Explosiveness of Volcanoes

3. Temperature of the magma (affects viscosity and explosiveness)

3 volcano types
3 Volcano Types
  • Volcano shape and size is related to:
    • Type of material in an eruption
    • Gas content
    • How often the volcano erupts
1 shield volcano
1. Shield Volcano
  • Gradual slope (gives “shield” shape)
  • Layers of lava built up over time
  • Low to moderately explosive
  • Ex. Hawaiian Island volcanoes
2 cinder cone volcano
2. Cinder Cone Volcano
  • Very steep slopes
  • Made of tephra (accumulated cinders and rock particles)
  • Moderate to highly explosive
  • Ex. Wizard Island
    • Crater Lake, Oregon
3 composite volcano stratovolcano
3. Composite Volcano (Stratovolcano)
  • Steep slopes
  • Made of layers of tephra and lava
  • Moderate to highly explosive
  • Ex. Mt. St. Helens
    • Cascade volcanoes
image credits
Image credits
  • Slide 2 volcano: http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBlogBytes%20Blog%20Resources/Year%209/Volcano_structure.png
  • Slide 4 mtsthelens: http://www.driever.nl/foto/achtergronden/JLM-NatGeo-Mount-St-Helens-1980-May-18.jpg
  • Slide 4 maunaloa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aa_channel_flow_from_Mauna_Loa.jpg
  • Slides 9 & 10 shield and cindercone: Tasa Graphics CD
  • Slide 11 stratovolcano: http://www.biocrawler.com/w/images/4/4f/Stratovolcano.jpg