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Rocks and the ROCK CYCLE. Examples : sand s ilt clay. Examples : sandstone Shale l imestone. SEDIMENTARY ROCK. Lithification (compaction & cementation). Sediments. High Temperature High Pressure. Weathering Erosion. METAMORPHIC ROCK. IGNEOUS ROCK. Melting. Examples : granite

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slide2

Examples: sand

silt

clay

Examples: sandstone

Shale

limestone

SEDIMENTARY ROCK

Lithification

(compaction & cementation)

Sediments

High Temperature

High Pressure

Weathering

Erosion

METAMORPHIC

ROCK

IGNEOUS

ROCK

Melting

Examples: granite

basalt

pumice

Examples:

slate

marble

gniess

quartzite

Magma

Cooling

Crystallization

coal the rock that burns
CoalThe Rock That Burns

Partially decayed plant matter in swamps and bogs; low heat content

PEAT

not a coal

Low heat content; low sulfur content; limited supply in most areas

heat & pressure

heat & pressure

=SEDIMENTARY ROCK

LIGNITE

(brown coal)

BITUMINOUS

(soft coal)

Extensively used as a fuel because of its high heat content and large supplies; normally has a high sulfur content

heat & pressure

=METAMORPHIC ROCK

ANTHRACITE

(hard coal)

Highly desirable fuel because if its high heat content; supplies are limited in most areas

slide4

shells

deposition

calcite

lithification

limestone

High heat & pressure

marble

slide5

sand

deposition

silicate

lithification

sandstone

High heat & pressure

quartzite

slide6

clay

silt

deposition

silicate

lithification

shale

High heat & pressure

slate

slide7

magma

Cooling & Crystallization

Mineral grains aligned in thick layers (foliation); less than 50%

Granite

High heat & pressure

gneiss

slide8

EXTRUSIVE (cools quickly)

magma

Cooling & Crystallization

heat & pressure

basalt

green stone

Cooling & Crystallization

More heat & pressure

Green schist

Granite

ENTRUSIVE (cools slowly)

High heat & pressure

schist

Mineral grains aligned into thin layers (foliation); 50% or more