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CHAPTER 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein Metabolism General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry PowerPoint Presentation
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CHAPTER 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein Metabolism General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry
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  1. CHAPTER 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein Metabolism General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry Janice Gorzynski Smith

  2. CHAPTER 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, & Protein Metabolism • Learning Objectives: • Role in Metabolism of fatty acid oxidation, glycolysis, & Amino acid catabolism • Reactions catalyzed by: kinase, isomerase, dehydrogenase, decarboxylase, carboxylase • Glycolysis: steps & net reaction • Pyruvate conversion to acetyl Coenzyme A • Gluconeogenesis: steps in synthesis of glucose • Catabolism of Triacylglycerols: beta-oxidation • Synthesis of ketone bodies: ketogenesis • Catabolism of Amino acids: • transamination & oxidative deamination • Ketogenicvsglucogenic amino acid catabolism • CH 24 Homework: • End of Chapter problems: 30, 36, 38, 42, 47, 52, 58, 60, 64, 68, 71, 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 96, 98 Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  3. Metabolism Step 2 of Metabolism • Fatty acid oxidation • Glycolysis • Amino Acid Catabolism •  All lead to the production of Acetyl CoA Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  4. Metabolism Step 2 of Metabolism • In the catabolism of carbohydrates, glycolysis • converts glucose into pyruvate, which is then • metabolized into acetyl CoA.

  5. Metabolism Step 2 of Metabolism • In the catabolism of lipids, fatty acids are converted • into thioestersand then cleaved into many • acetyl CoA units.

  6. Metabolism Step 2 of Metabolism • Amino acids are usually reassembled into new • proteins. • Since excess amino acids are not stored in the • body, they can also be catabolizedfor energy. • The amino groups (NH2) are converted to urea • [(NH2)2C=O], which is excreted in urine.

  7. Metabolism Step 2 of Metabolism: Urea Cycle http://www.t3portal.org/T3_Portal_v1/!SSL!/WebHelp/ales_vancuraCatabolism_of_amino_acids.htm

  8. Biochemical Rxns Common Enzymes Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  9. Biochemical Rxns Common Enzymes: Example • The transfer of a phosphate unit from ATP to the • fructose 6-phosphate molecule is catalyzed by • a kinase enzyme. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  10. Glycolysis Definition • Glycolysis is a linear, 10-step anaerobic pathway that converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. • Steps [1] – [5] comprise the energy investment phase, where 2 ATP molecules are hydrolyzed. • The 6-carbon glucose molecule is converted into two 3-carbon segments. • Steps [6] – [10] comprise the energy-generating phase, producing 1 NADH and 2 ATPs for each pyruvate formed. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  11. Glycolysis Energy Investment Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  12. Glycolysis Energy Generation Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  13. Glycolysis Step 1 • Step [1] begins with the phosphorylation of glucose into glucose 6-phosphate, using an ATP and a kinase enzyme. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  14. Glycolysis Step 2 • Step [2] isomerizes • glucose 6-phosphate to • fructose 6-phosphate • with an isomeraseenzyme. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  15. Glycolysis Step 3 • Step [3] is the • phosphorylation of • fructose 6-phosphate into • fructose 1,6-bisphosphate • with a kinase enzyme. • Steps [1-3] add 2 phosphate groups and isomerize a 6-membered ring into a 5-membered ring. Energy is stored as 2 ATP molecules. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  16. Glycolysis Step 4 • Step [4] cleavesthe fructose ring into a dihydroxy- • acetone phosphate and a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  17. Glycolysis Step 5 • Step [5] isomerizes the dihydroxyacetone phosphate • into another glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. • Thus, the first phase of glycolysis converts • glucose into 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate units. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  18. Glycolysis Step 6 • Instep [6] the aldehyde end of the molecule • is oxidized and phosphorylated by a dehydrogenase • enzyme and NAD+; this produces 1,3-bisphospho- • glycerate and NADH. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  19. Glycolysis Step 7 • In step [7], the phosphate group is transferred • onto an ADP with a kinase enzyme, forming • 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  20. Glycolysis Step 8 • Instep [8], the phosphate group is isomerized to • a new position in 2-phosphoglycerate. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  21. Glycolysis Step 9 • In step [9], water is lost to form phosphoenol- • pyruvate. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  22. Glycolysis Step 10 • Instep [10], thephosphate is transferred to an ADP, • yielding pyruvate and ATP with a kinase enzyme. • The 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate units are converted into 2 pyruvate units in Phase two of glycolysis. • Overall, the energy-generating phase forms 2 NADHs and 4 ATPs. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  23. Glycolysis Overall Reaction • 2 ATPs are used in phase one of glycolysis, and 4 ATPs are made in phase two of glycolysis. • The net result is the synthesis of 2 ATPs from glycolysis • The 2 NADHs formed are made in the cytoplasm and must be transported to the mitochondria to join the electron transport chain and make ATP. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  24. Glycolysis Pyruvate Pyruvate can be converted into three possibleproducts depending on the conditions and the organism. under aerobic conditions under anaerobic conditions in fermentation by microorganisms Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  25. Glycolysis ATP Yield Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  26. Glycolysis ATP Yield 2 x 2.5 ATP = 5 ATP 2 x 2.5 ATP = 5 ATP 2 x 1.5 = 3 ATP 2 ATP 6 x 2.5 = 15 ATP Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  27. Gluconeogenesis Definition • Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of glucose from • noncarbohydrate sources—lactate, amino acids, • or glycerol. • Gluconeogenesis is an anabolic pathway since • it results in the synthesis of larger molecules from • smaller ones. Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.

  28. Gluconeogenesis Cori Cycle Smith, Janice Gorzynski. General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry 2nd Ed.