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Eighth edition. Jackson and Schuler. Chapter 6: Using Job Analysis and Competency Modeling as the Foundation for the HR System. © 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved. Chapter Outline. The Strategic Importance of Job Analysis and Competency Modeling Basic Terminology

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chapter 6 using job analysis and competency modeling as the foundation for the hr system

Eighth edition

Jackson and Schuler

Chapter 6:

Using Job Analysis and Competency Modeling as the Foundation for the HR System

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • The Strategic Importance of Job Analysis and Competency Modeling
  • Basic Terminology
  • Sources of Information
  • Methods of Collecting Information
  • Methods Analysis
  • Generic Job Analysis
  • Standardized Job Analysis Questionnaires
  • Customized Task Inventories

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

chapter outline cont d
Chapter Outline (cont’d)
  • Analyzing Needed Competencies
  • Job Families and Career Paths
  • Trends in Job Analysis

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

strategic importance of job analysis and competency modeling
Strategic Importance of Job Analysisand Competency Modeling
  • Job analysis and competency modeling are systematic procedures that provide the foundation for all HRM activities.
  • Information about jobs and job requirements is necessary for fair and effective HRM decision-making.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

strategic change jobs and hr
Strategic Change, Jobs, and HR
  • Strategic Change
    • Jobs change when an organization undergoes a strategic change.
      • Merger/acquisition
      • New business objectives
    • New HR policies and practices are needed for new jobs and competencies.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job analysis and the law
Job Analysis and the Law
  • Legal Considerations
    • Job analysis is used to document decisions and protect against unfair treatment claims in selection and promotion decisions.
    • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
    • Independent contractors

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

americans with disabilities act of 1990
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Act made it unlawful to discriminate against qualified individual who has a disability.
    • Disability: physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
    • A person is qualified if he or she can perform the “essential functions” of a job with reasonable accommodation.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

independent contractors
Independent Contractors
  • Test for Independent Contract Status:
    • Whether worker is told how to do the job
    • Whether work is essential part of business
    • Whether worker must personally do the work
    • Whether work hours are specified
    • Whether worker can also work for others
    • Whether work must be performed at company’s facilities
  • Job analysis can help clarify employee’s status.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

integrated hr system
Integrated HR System
  • Objectives of Job Analysis and Competency Modeling
  • Identify jobs to be eliminated
  • Develop new selection tools
  • Design career paths
  • Identify training needs
  • Develop performance measures
  • Choices in JA and CompetencyModeling
  • Sources of information
  • Methods to collect information
  • Using O*NET
  • Standardized vs customized
  • Focus on Jobs vs Roles
  • Current vs future

Global and Organizational Environment

Use JA results

  • Other HR Activities
  • Planning
  • Recruitment
  • Selection
  • Training

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

roles and responsibilities in analysis and competency modeling
Roles and Responsibilities in Analysis and Competency Modeling
  • Line Managers
  • Participate in planning
  • With HR, determine jobs to be analyzed
  • Decide who should conduct JA
  • Identify incumbents to participate and facilitate participation
  • Provide documents
  • Participate in interviews and questionnaires
  • HR Professionals
  • Participate in planning
  • Communicate importance of JA
  • With line mgrs, determine jobs to be analyzed
  • Serve as JA expert or hire vendor
  • Inform others of legal issues
  • Update job descriptions
  • Keep up-to-date
  • Employees
  • Participate in planning
  • Understand importance and purpose of JA
  • Inform mgr when JA needed
  • Provide accurate JA info
  • Adapt to new job demands
  • Use JA for career planning

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • Position
    • Activities carried out by any single person.
  • Job
    • Positions that are functionally interchangeable.
  • Job Family
    • A group of jobs that can be treated as similar for administrative purposes.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

basic terminology cont d
Basic Terminology (cont’d)
  • Job Analysis (JA)
    • Systematic process of describing and recording information about
      • Purposes of a job
      • Major duties or activities
      • Conditions under which the job is performed
      • Competencies (skills, knowledge, abilities, and other attributes) that enable and enhance performance in a job
  • There are at least 15 major JA approaches

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

basic terminology cont d1
Basic Terminology (cont’d)
  • Task-Oriented Job Analysis
    • Focus on what the job involves
      • Activities
      • Outcomes
  • Worker-Oriented Job Analysis
    • Focus on required characteristics of job incumbents
    • Focus on who can do the job
      • Competency modeling is a worker-focused approach

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

terminology competency modeling
Terminology: Competency Modeling
  • An approach to job analysis that emphasizes the individual characteristics needed for effective performance
  • Describes successful employees in terms of:
    • Skills
    • Knowledge
    • Abilities
    • Values
    • Interests
    • Personality

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

terminology job descriptions
Written documentation that should include:

Job Title

Department/Division

Date job analyzed

Job summary

Supervision

Work performed

Job context

Uses

To document the employment relationship

To inform applicants

To guide job behavior

To evaluate performance

As guide for writing references and resumes

Terminology: Job Descriptions

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

sources of information
Sources of Information

Job Incumbents

Obtain representative sample, may inflate difficulty of job

Supervisors

May or may not observe directly, have “big picture”

Subject Matter

Experts

Trained Job Analysts

Use diverse sources, don’t see all aspects

Customers

May have strategic information

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

methods of collecting information
Methods of Collecting Information
  • Observations
    • Work Sampling
    • May be intrusive
  • Interviews
  • Questionnaires
  • Diaries

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job analysis techniques
Job Analysis Techniques
  • Methods Analysis
    • Analyzing the smallest identifiable components of a job

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

methods analysis
Methods Analysis
  • Time and Motion Studies
    • Best for repetitive and routine tasks
  • Process Reengineering
    • Flow process charts show sequence of an operation
    • Used to redesign jobs

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

generic job analysis
Generic Job Analysis
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
    • Created by U.S. Training and Employment Service
    • Based on Functional Job Analysis
    • Describes 12,000+ Occupations
    • Being replaced by O*Net

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

generic job analysis1
Generic Job Analysis
  • Occupational Information Network
    • Released in 1998 on internet
    • Comprehensive database system with info on job characteristics and worker attributes
    • Describes organizational and economic contexts

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

dot s functional job analysis
DOT’s Functional Job Analysis
  • Uses a complex rating system to describe the activities of jobs
  • Sample job analysis rating for working with people
    • 0 =Mentoring 5=Persuading
    • 1 =Negotiating 6=Speaking
    • 2 =Instructing 7=Serving
    • 3 =Supervising 8=Helping
    • 4 =Diverting

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

generic job analysis techniques
Generic Job Analysis Techniques

Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

Experience

Requirements

Occupational

Requirements

Worker

Requirements

O*NET

Worker

Characteristics

Occupation

Specific

Requirements

Occupation

Characteristics

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

standardized job analysis questionnaires
Standardized Job Analysis Questionnaires
  • Use ratings of job behaviors made by
    • Incumbents
    • Supervisors
    • HR Manager
  • Applicable to wide variety of jobs
  • Widely used instruments include:
    • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
    • Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job analysis techniques1
Job Analysis Techniques
  • Standardized Job Analysis Questionnaire
    • Information input
    • Mental processes
    • Work output
    • Relationships with other people
    • Job context
    • Other job characteristics

Position

Analysis

Questionnaire

(PAQ)

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

mpdq components of managerial jobs
MPDQ: Components of Managerial Jobs
  • Supervision
  • Product and service responsibility
  • Advanced financial responsibility
  • Internal business control
  • Complexity and stress
  • Coordination of other organizational units and personnel
  • Public and customer relations

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job analysis techniques2
Job Analysis Techniques

Customized task andwork behavior inventories

Observation

and

interviews

Critical

Incident

Technique

(CIT)

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

customized task inventories
Customized Task Inventories
  • Workers are observed and interviewed.
  • List of tasks or work behaviors (items) is developed.
  • Questionnaire is based on list of items and used to obtain detailed information.
  • Critical Incident Technique may be used:
    • Incumbents and supervisors describe incidents illustrating effective or ineffective performance.
    • Incidents provide insight into job requirements.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

customized task inventories1
Customized Task Inventories
  • For each task statement on questionnaire, respondents may indicate:
    • If behavior is performed in the position
    • Percentage of time spent on task
    • Importance of task
    • Whether new employees perform task
  • Results are vivid, detailed, but development and analysis are complex.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

analyzing needed competencies
Analyzing Needed Competencies
  • Standardized Approach
    • Abilities Requirements Approach
      • 50 Ability Dimensions
    • Consulting firms have standard taxonomies
  • Customized Approach
    • Subject matter experts (incumbents, supervisors) identify competencies
    • Questionnaire completed by SMEs who rate competencies

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job families and career paths
Job Families and Career Paths
  • Managing Careers
    • Group jobs into families based on
      • Similar competencies required
      • Similar tasks
      • Similar value to the organization
    • Employees can see logical progression careers might take.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

job families and career paths1
Job Families and Career Paths

Broadbanding: clustering jobs into wide tiers to

manage career growth and pay administration.

Pay level 1

Pay range 1

Pay level 2

Pay level 3

Pay level 4

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

decline of job analysis
Trends inconsistent with traditional job analysis:

Increased job sharing

Decreased job specialization

Work teams

Why is job analysis needed?

Legal compliance

To support strategic change

To build integrated HRM systems

Decline of Job Analysis?

Competency-based approaches may be more relevant today.

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

trends in job analysis
Trends in Job Analysis
  • From “my job” to “my role”
  • Future-oriented job analysis and competency modeling
  • Job analysis for customers
  • Human Factors Approach to job analysis and job redesign

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.

human factors approach
Human Factors Approach
  • Ergonomic Analysis
    • Aims to minimize stress and fatigue at work
    • Focuses on how job tasks affect physical movements and physiological responses

© 2003 South-Western College Publishing. All rights reserved.