Night. Elie Wiesel.
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Night Elie Wiesel
"Never shall I forget that night, the first night in the camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever…Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never." — "Night "
Objectives: • Students will: • learn about and be able to define the Holocaust • read, evaluate and discuss Holocaust-related literature • ask and discuss difficult questions about hatred, evil and intolerance • bear witness to an event from their own lives • conduct Internet research. write essays, • journal entries and letters undertake a project, where • they make a contribution to the community learn • about other human rights activists
Define the term "Holocaust" • The Holocaust refers to a specific genocidal event in the 20th century history: the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims—six million were murdered; Gypsies, the handicapped and Poles were also targeted for destruction or decimation for racial, ethnic, or national reasons. Millions more, including homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Soviet prisoners of war and political dissidents, also suffered grievous oppression and death under Nazi tyranny.
Define Genocide • Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.“
Some Questions to think about… • When does a nation (the United States, for example) have the political will to take all necessary steps to stop genocide? • How much international cooperation can be mustered? How much is needed? • What are the possible ramifications of intervention? • Is a nation willing to absorb casualties and death to stop a genocide?
Frontline: Memory of the Camps • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/camp/view/
Boy in Striped Pajamas • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EibUdcby8dY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCCV_GfVE1Q&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MeSPxQ8XlA&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enOBSY90iPQ&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mrheBIMfsrw&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBBPRo2_lsc&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cF-hK4_08No&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_oGCuKx4n8&feature=relmfu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcb_obGjm54&feature=relmfu
Paper Clips • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GP15cY3f7UA • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzBF1GI222g • Holocaust Documentary • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aS98MAN3Xtg&feature=related
A speech given by Elie Wiesel • "We May Use Words to Break the Prison": Elie Wiesel on Writing Night • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/video/2009/04/07/VI2009040701847.html
AboutElie Wiesel • Elie Wiesel was born on September 20, 1928, in Sighet, Transylvania. • His parents owned and operated a store, and his mother was also a teacher. He credits his maternal grandfather with his love of storytelling. • Just after Passover in 1944, when Wieisel was 15, the Nazis sent all of the Jews in Singhet to the concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau. He and his father were later transferred to Buchenwald. • He was 16 when the war ended and he was released. Wiesel traveled to France and was reunited with his two older sisters • Soon after his release from the concentration camps, Wiesel realized that he had a duty as a survivor to let others know what had happened
About Elie Wiesel • Wiesel traveled to the United States in 1956 to write about the United Nations. He was hit by a taxi cab in Times Square. Since he was unable to return to France to renew his residency papers, he instead applied for United States citizenship. He married another Holocaust survivor, Marion Erster Rose, in New York in 1969. • In 1986 alone he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the Freedom Cup Award from the Women's League for Israel, the Jacob Javits Humanitarian Award of the UJA Young Leadership, and the Medal of Liberty.
Night… • Night: First Person Singular is about one man's passionate resolve to bear witness for the millions of people who suffered and perished in the Holocaust. He has been sustained by his faith and guided by his belief in the power of language and the value of teaching. • These are the author’s own words, describing his arrival at the concentration camp that would claim the life of his mother and younger sister.
Night Time and Place • Night takes place in Europe (Romania, Poland, and Germany) during World War II (1939–1945). This war, sparked by German aggression, had its roots in the ending of an earlier war. With Germany’s defeat in World War I, the nation was left with a broken government, a severely limited military, shattered industry and transportation, and an economy sinking under the strain of war debts. Many Germans were humiliated and demoralized. The Nazi party—in German NAZI stands for National Socialist German Workers Party—came to power in the late 1920s. The party, through its leader Adolf Hitler, offered to restore German pride. At large rallies Hitler spoke of Germany’s long military tradition, its national character, and its entitlement to greatness. To explain Germany’sfallen state, Hitler blamed the Jews and others whom he said were not true Germans. Many Germans responded enthusiastically to Hitler’s ideas, and in 1933 he became chancellor, or leader, of the country. Once in power, Hitler was able to restore Germany’s economy and its military. He used that progress to support his expansion efforts, unchecked by Allied countries struggling with the worldwide Great Depression. In 1938 Hitler began invading the lands around Germany. Britain and France declared war in 1939. The United States did not enter the war until 1941. In 1941, when Night begins, Hitler seemed unstoppable. By 1942 he controlled or was allied with most of Europe, including Wiesel’s Romania, which was pro-German. As the story progresses, Wiesel is confined in a total of three concentration camps, Auschwitz and Buna, in Poland, and later Buchenwald, in central Germany.
Did you Know?? • Hitler’s treatment of the Jews was more than a political strategy. He was an anti-Semite (hater of Jews) who viewed the Jews as an inferior race. In fact, Judaism is not a race, but rather a religion. Soon after taking control of Germany, Hitler began persecuting German Jews. They lost their citizenship and often their right to work, were barred from public schools and gathering places, could no longer marry non-Jews, and suffered frequent physical attacks to their homes and businesses. Hitler defined as Jews those with at least one Jewish grandparent, whether or not they observed their religion. By 1938, before the War spread beyond Germany, Hitler and his secret-police organization, the Gestapo, had already imprisoned more than 30,000 Jews. In keeping with his goal of achieving German racial “purity,” Hitler also attacked and imprisoned Gypsies, people with handicaps, and homosexuals. Those who disagreed with Hitler’s political views—Communists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Soviet and Slavic prisoners of war—were also mercilessly imprisoned, enslaved, and murdered. As Hitler’s control of Europe spread, more and more innocent people were imprisoned or killed. Some were forced to live in ghettos, enclosed areas within cities, where they often starved. Others were executed or sent to the rapidly expanding camp system. By the end of the war, at least six million Jews and five million non-Jews had
Unit Objectives for Night • Through reading Night students will analyze characters and their situations to better understand the themes of the novel. • Students will demonstrate their understanding of the text on four levels: factual, interpretive, critical, and personal • Students will practice reading aloud and silently to improve their skills in each area. • Students will enrich their vocabularies and improve their understanding of the novel through the vocabulary lessons prepared for use in conjunction with it • Students will answer questions to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the main events and characters in Night.
Unit Objectives in Night • Students will practice writing through a variety of writing assignments • The writing assignments in this are geared to several purposes: • a. To check the students' reading comprehension • b. To make students think about the ideas presented by the novel • c. To make students put those ideas into perspective • d. To encourage critical and logical thinking • e. To provide the opportunity to practice good grammar and improve students' use of the English language • Students will read aloud, report, and participate in large and small group discussions to improve their public speaking and personal interaction skills
Holocaust Timeline and Events: • 1918-1933: Rise of Nazi Party: During the 144 years following the end of the WWI, the Nazi party grew from a small political group to the most powerful party in Germany. • 1933-1939: Nazification: Once Hitler became Chancellor and later Reichsfuhrer, the Nazi party quickly changed Germany’s political, social, and economical structure
Holocaust Timeline and Events: • 1939-1941: The Ghettos: Confining Jews to ghettos was another critical step in Hitler’s “final solution” • 1941-1942: The Camps: The Concentration camps were Hitler’s final steps in annihilation of the Jews and other groups. • 1942-1944: Resistance: People resisted by any means possible, from stealing a slice of bread to sabotaging Nazi groups.
Holocaust Timeline and Events: • 1944-1945: Rescue and Liberation: Some survived through the heroics of neighbors; others were liberated by the Allies. • 1945-present: Aftermath: After the war, Nazi perpetrators faced punishment for their war crimes and survivors began rebuilding their lives.
Through a study of these topics, students come to realize that: • Democratic institutions and values are not automatically sustained, but need to be appreciated, nurtured, and protected; • Silence and indifference to the suffering of others, or to the infringement of civil rights in any society can—however unintentionally—perpetuate the problems; and • The Holocaust was not an accident in history—it occurred because individuals, organizations, and governments made choices that not only legalized discrimination but also allowed prejudice, hatred, and ultimately mass murder to occur. • The Holocaust was a watershed event, not only in the twentieth century but also in the entire course of human history. • Study of the Holocaust assists students in developing an understanding of the roots and ramifications of prejudice, racism, and stereotyping in any society. • Thinking about these events can help students to develop an awareness of the value of pluralism and encourages acceptance of diversity in a pluralistic society. • The Holocaust provides a context for exploring the dangers of remaining silent, apathetic, and indifferent in the face of the oppression of others. • Holocaust history demonstrates how a modern nation can utilize its technological expertise and bureaucratic infrastructure to implement destructive policies ranging from social engineering to genocide. • A study of these topics helps students to think about the use and abuse of power, and the roles and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and nations when confronted with civil rights violations and/or policies of genocide. • As students gain insight into the many historical, social, religious, political, and economic factors that cumulatively resulted in the Holocaust, they gain awareness of the complexity of the subject and a perspective on how a convergence of factors can contribute to the disintegration of democratic values. Students come to understand that it is the responsibility of citizens in any society to learn to identify danger signals, and to know when to react.
Before you read Chapter 1 & 2 • In your group discuss events that unexpectedly change people’s lives. Discuss possible effects and emotional reactions you or others might have to each event.
Background for Chapters 1 & 2 • The town of Sighet, where Night begins, has been part of both Romania and Hungary at various times. • During Wiesel’s childhood, Sighet was home to 15,000 Jews. Most were devout Hasidic Jews whose lives focused on family, religion, and learning. • Like most of their Jewish neighbors, the Wiesel’s were poor but intensely committed to education. For Elie that meant spending his time day and night studying sacred Jewish text such as the Torah and Talmud. • At the age of 12 Elie began exploring the cabbala, or Jewish mysticism-an approach to Bible study that analyzes hidden meaning in texts • As WWII progressed, Wiesel’s father Chlomo began helping Jews escape from Poland, risking his life to help others escape Nazi persecution.
Did you know… • Judaism dates back nearly 4,000 years. It shares many ideas with-and in fact is an ancestor to-both Christianity and Islam. These 3 religions all originated in the same part of the world, the area we know as the Middle East. • The sacred text of all three religions overlaps in several ways • The Hebrew Bible is what Christians call the Old Testament. • Many of these Bible stories also appear in the Islamic sacred text, the Quran. • 2 important Jewish holy days are Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur • Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year and usually occurs in September. 10 days later comes Yom Kippur. • Yom Kippur is a day of fasting and atonement. Passover is a springtime ritual that celebrates the Jews’ escape from slavery in Egypt.
Vocab for Chapters 1 & 2 • COMPATRIOTS • a native or inhabitant of one's own country; fellow countryman or countrywoman. • EDICT • any authoritative proclamation or command. • EXPOUND • to explain; interpret. • FIRMAMENT • sky. • HERMITICALLY • a person who has withdrawn to a solitary place for a life of religious seclusion; any person living in seclusion; recluse; completely sealed, airtight • PESTILENTIAL • Harmful; annoyingly troublesome, filled with disease • PILLAGE • to strip ruthlessly of money or goods by open violence; to rob with open violence • PREMONITION • a feeling of anticipation of or anxiety over a future event • TRUNCHEON • the club carried by a police officer
Journal After Reading the 1st Half of Section 1 • “Each of us will be allowed to bring his personal belongings. A backpack, some food, a few items of clothing…” What would you bring if you had little time to pack and you could only carry a backpack? Be thoughtful and thorough in your response.
Journal After Section 1 • “There are 80 of you in a cattle car…If anyone on of you goes missing, you will be shot like dogs…” What would it feel like to travel for 3 days not being fed or given water or being able to have privacy to go to the bathroom? Explain your thoughts.
Journal After Section 2 • At the beginning of Section 3, Wiesel finds out that the objects he was told he could carry were to be “left behind in the wagon” Write about a time when you were disappointed, had something wrongfully taken from you, or experienced a loss.
At the end of Sec 1 & 2 & 3 • Graphic Organizer: • For each section requested you need to find an important event that has altered the story in some way. List the event and how it has impacted the story thus far! • You should have 2 events for the 1st half of Section 1 • You should have 2 events for the 2nd half of Section 1 • You should have 2 events for Section 2 • You should have 2 events for the 1st half of section 3 • You should have 2 events for the 2nd half of section 3
Before you Read Chapters 3-5 • How have you reacted when faced with danger, whether to you or someone else? • Create a cluster web, with DANGER written in the center circle. In circles radiating from the center, list possible reactions to dangerous situations. In other circles coming off of the reaction circles, brainstorm possible consequences of those reactions.
Background for Chapters 3-5 • The Nazi’s opened the first concentration camp in 1933, soon after Hitler became German Chancellor. • In years leading up to the war, Hitler imprisoned thousands more people. • Once Hitler began invading other lands, the demand for camps skyrocketed!!
Background for Chapters 3-5 • In 1941 Hitler invaded Russia and was plunged into the first long battle of war. He needed supplies and weapons; thus, many of the camps became forced labor centers that used prisoners to fuel the Nazi death machine. • In 1942 , at eh Wannsee Conference, Hitler and his allies developed the official policy known as the “final solution.” • Under this plan, Jews in particular would be worked until they collapsed and then they would be killed. • Hitler’s scientists first experimented with “mercy killings” on people who were mentally ill. • Gas chambers were added to 6 camps…leading to mass extermination. • More than 1.25 million people were killed at Auschwitz alone.
Did you Know?? • Insufficient food and the lack of a balanced diet led to malnutrition and starvation for many concentration camp prisoners. • When people are undernourished, their bodies cannot grow or repair themselves properly. People lose weight and are more likely to fall ill. Children who are still growing suffer even more problems. • Some common diseases that result from malnutrition are scurvy and beriberi, in which a lack of vitamins and minerals weaken bones and cause stomach problems.
Vocab Chapters 3-5 • Bestial: • without reason or intelligence; brutal; inhuman • Blandishments: • something, as an action or speech, that tends to flatter, coax, entice • Crucible: • Container for cooking at high heat • Emaciated: • abnormal thinness caused by lack of nutrition or by disease • Leprous: • Infectious disease that affects the body tissue • Manacle: • To handcuff • Queue: • Waiting line • Wizened: • Dry, shrunken, wrinkled
½ Way Through Reading Section 3 List the characters we have been introduced to so far in the novel. Then write 2-3 sentences describing them physically. Make sure to include personality traits if they have been discussed within the book.
You need to Make sure you have completed… • Section 1 Vocab and Questions • Section 2 & 3 Vocab and Questions • Graphic Organizer for Section 1 & 2 • Have put 2 events for Section 3 in Graphic Organizer for Section 3-5
After reading Section 3 • Wiesel writes, “Never shall I forget that night, the first night in the camp…Never shall I forget that smoke…Never shall I forget…” Taking the phrase, “Never shall I forget…” write a minimum of 8 “Never shall I forget…” moments. These can be happy or challenging memories
After Reading Section 4 • So far, we have been introduced to several characters. Take on the “voice” of one of these characters and write a journal entry from their point of view. Summarize what has happened in their eyes so far. It can be broad over a longer period of time, or summarizing a single powerful event. It’s your choice. You Journal should be no less than a paragraph…5 sentences. Use complete sentences and correct grammar
Mood • The Mood or Tone of a story is the author’s attempt to create the atmosphere of the story. The mood evokes an emotional response from the reader and lets the reader know how the characters feel. It may stay the same throughout a story, or it may change, depending on circumstances and events. The author’s descriptions and the characters’ dialogue and actions express the mood of the story. Mood can be stated or implied.
Mood with the iPod • As we listen to a few songs I want you to write down the mood that you feel as your listen. • As you listen and come up with the mood you also need to write down words or phrases that you hear that causes you to feel that particular way.
Mood with Night • Give your impression of the mood conveyed by the title of the novel. • Reread the first section of the book to see where and how the mood changes from relatively pleasant to fearful. • Make a list of words that Wiesel uses to invoke a certain mood. • Keep the mood of the book in mind as we read throughout.
Literary Term Find • So far throughout the novel there have been various stylistic devices used by Eli Wiesel. In your group you need to do the following… • Describe the setting • Find 4 Similes • Find one instance of sarcasm • Find 2 passages of imagery • Find 2 instances of Foreshadowing • Find 2 instances of personification • Find 1 instance of style: where Elie is very direct and forward and then where Elie makes the reader read between the lines
You need to Make sure you have completed… • Section 1 Vocab and Questions • Section 2 & 3 Vocab and Questions • Graphic Organizer for Section 1 & 2 • Have put 2 events for Section 3 in Graphic Organizer for Section 3-5 • Lit Terms • Describe the setting • Find 4 Similes • Find one instance of sarcasm • Find 2 passages of imagery • Find 2 instances of Foreshadowing • Find 2 instances of personification • Find 1 instance of style: where Elie is very direct and forward and then where Elie makes the reader read between the lines