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Pharmacoepidemiology Kristian B. Filion, PhD CIHR New Investigator Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Epidemiology Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research Jewish General Hospital/McGill University
Definition Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the use of and the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. The term pharmacoepidemiology obviously contains two components: “pharmaco” and “epidemiology”. Brian L. Storm (editor). Pharmacoepidemiology (fourth edition)
Drug Safety and Effectiveness • Drug Safety: • Post-Marketing Surveillance of Adverse Drug Effects • Comparative Effectiveness Research: • Designed to inform health-care decisions by providing evidence on the effectiveness, benefits, and harms of different treatment options • Evidence is generated from research studies that compare drugs, medical devices, tests, surgeries, or ways to deliver health care http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/what-is-comparative-effectiveness-research1/
Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network (DSEN) • Joint CIHR-Health Canada initiative ($32M over 5 years) • Part of the Food and Consumer Safety Action Plan • Key objectives: • Increase the available evidence on drug safety and effectiveness available to regulators, policy-makers, health care providers and patients • Increase capacity within Canada to undertake high-quality post-market research • Team grants: • Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) • Drug Safety and Effectiveness Network Collaborating Centre for Prospective Studies http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/40269.html
Potential Contributions of Pharmacoepidemiology • Information which supplements the information available from premarketing studies – better quantitation of the incidence of known adverse and beneficial effects • Higher precision • In patients not studied prior to marketing (e.g., the elderly, children, in pregnant women) • As modified by other drugs and other illnesses • Relative to other drugs used for the same indication Brian L. Storm (editor). Pharmacoepidemiology (fourth edition)
Potential Contributions of Pharmacoepidemiology (Cont.) • New types of information not available from premarketing studies • Discovery of previously undetected adverse and beneficial effects (e.g., Uncommon effects, Delayed effects) • Patterns of drug utilization • The effects of drug overdoses • The economic implications of drug use • General contributions of pharmacoepidemiology • Reassurances about drug safety • Fulfillment of ethical and legal obligations Brian L. Storm (editor). Pharmacoepidemiology (fourth edition)
Bladder Cancer in PROACTIVE * Cases remaining after blinded review Dormandy et. al. Lancet 2005.
Thiazolidinediones and Risk of Bladder Cancer *Matched on year of birth, year of cohort entry, sex, and duration of follow-up. †Adjusted for excessive alcohol use, obesity, smoking status, HbA1c , previous bladder conditions, previous cancer (other then non-melanoma skin cancer), Charlson comorbidity score, and ever use of other antidiabetic agents (metformin, sulfonylureas, insulin, and other oral hypoglycaemic agents). Azoulay et. al. BMJ 2012.
Other Examples of Pharmacoepidemiology at McGill International Psychogeriatrics Assessing the cumulative effects of exposure to selected benzodiazepines on the risk of fall-related injuries in the elderly Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Michal Abrahamowicz, RadanČapek and Robyn Tamblyn
Pharmacoepidemiology Investigators at McGill • Laurent Azoulay • SachaBernatsky • Jean-François Boivin • Paul Brassard • James Brophy • Jaimie Caro • Pierre Ernst • Kristian Filion • ElhamRahme • Michel Rossignol • Samy Suissa • Vicky Tagalakis • Robyn Tamblyn
ProspectiveJobs • Academia • Government • Consulting • Pharmaceutical Industry