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Fishes of Pennsylvania. Introduction to the Nekton. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Lampreys Sturgeons Paddlefish Gars Bowfin American Eel Herrings Minnows Suckers Catfishes. Pikes Rainbow Smelt Trout and Salmon Burbot Banded Killifish Threespine Stickleback Sculpin Temperate Basses

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fishes of pennsylvania

Fishes of Pennsylvania

Introduction to the Nekton

fishes of pennsylvania2
Fishes of Pennsylvania
  • Lampreys
  • Sturgeons
  • Paddlefish
  • Gars
  • Bowfin
  • American Eel
  • Herrings
  • Minnows
  • Suckers
  • Catfishes
  • Pikes
  • Rainbow Smelt
  • Trout and Salmon
  • Burbot
  • Banded Killifish
  • Threespine Stickleback
  • Sculpin
  • Temperate Basses
  • Sunfishes
  • Perches
  • Freshwater Drum
lampreys
Lampreys
  • American Brook Lamprey Lampetra appendix
  • Larvae filter feed
  • Adult does not feed. The Sea Lamprey (in Great Lakes) and the Ohio Lamprey (western PA) are parasitic. The three native PA Brook Lampreys are not parasitic.
sturgeons
Sturgeons
  • The Lake Sturgeon –Acipenserfulvescens- is the only freshwater sturgeon in PA. It is found in Lake Erie.
  • The Shortnose Sturgeon and the Atlantic Sturgeon are marine and tidal fish that may occur in the lower Delaware River.
  • All PA sturgeons are endangered
paddlefish
Paddlefish
  • Paddlefish –Polydonspathula- only living species.
  • Extirpated from former ranges in western PA and Lake Erie.
  • PA Fish and Boat Commission reintroduced them to the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers.
slide7
Gar
  • Two gar species occur in PA: The Spotted Gar and the Longnose Gar.
  • The Longnose Gar –Lepidosteusosseus- is in low numbers through the lower Great Lakes, western PA and extreme lower Susquehanna River.
bowfin
Bowfin
  • Bowfin – Amiacalvia
  • Found mainly around Presque Isle and in the lower parts of the major drainages.
  • Can tolerate very warm water and gulp air.
american eel
American Eel
  • The American Eel –Anguilaamericana –occurs in the Delaware River drainage.
  • Now attempts are being made to return the eel to the Susquehanna River
herrings
Herrings
  • This family includes Blueback Herring, Alewife, Gizzard Shad, Hickory Shad, and American Shad.
  • The American Shad –Alosasapidissima- anadromous fish that enter mainstem of large rivers to spawn.
  • Attempts to support shad run in the Susquehanna River
  • In rivers, shad eat small crustaceans, zooplankton, worms, insects, and small fish
minnows
Minnows
  • PA has 39 species of minnows, including exotics like Carp and Goldfish.
  • The minnows of Pennsylvania include:
    • Bluntnose Minnow
    • Cutlips Minnow
    • Central Stoneroller
    • Emerald Shiner
    • Hornyhead Chub
    • Grass Carp
  • Common Carp
  • Common Shiner
  • River Chub
  • Golden Shiner
  • Fathead Minnow
  • Spotfin Shiner
  • Rosyface Shiner
  • Blacknose Dace
  • Longnose Dace
  • Creek Chub
  • Fallfish
cutlips minnow
Cutlips Minnow
  • Cutlips Minnow (Exoglossummaxillingua)
  • Lower lip in three lobes, the center of which looks like a tongue
  • Stony pools of clean streams
  • Mainly feed on small mollusks, insects, and diatoms
common carp
Common Carp
  • The Common Carp (Cyprinuscarpio)
  • Native to Asia and eastern Europe; considered invasive in some watersheds
  • Found in many habitats, but prefer slow-moving water with a well-developed littoral zone
common shiner
Common Shiner
  • Common Shiner (Notropiscornutus)
  • Moving water, warm to cold
  • Very common in North America, east of the Rocky Mountains and North of the Gulf states
  • Omnivore: plants and insects mainly at or near the surface
spotfin shiner
Spotfin Shiner
  • Spotfin Shiner (Cyprinellaspiloptera)
  • Common in streams throughout the east
  • Omnivore: plants, insects, small fish near the surface
longnose dace
Longnose Dace
  • Longnose Dace (Rhinichthyescataractae)
  • In streams with riffles and pools
  • Mainly staying near the bottom where they feed on insect larvae, particularly chironomids
suckers
Suckers
  • Quillback Carpsucker
  • White Sucker
  • Northern Hog Sucker
  • The Redhorses
    • River Redhorse
    • ShortheadRedhorse
quillback carpsucker
Quillback Carpsucker
  • The Quillback Carpsucker (Carpoidescyprinus)
  • Body is deep and laterally compressed
  • They travel in schools in slow-moving rivers and backwaters with gravel bottoms.
  • Eat a wide variety of benthic macroinvertebrates
white sucker
White Sucker
  • The White Sucker (Catostomuscommersoni)
  • Cylindrical body with a rounded snout
  • Range from headwaters to warm, low oxygen water.
  • They are omnivores, feeding on plants, zooplankton, benthos
northern hog sucker
Northern Hog Sucker
  • The Northern Hogsucker (Hypenteliumnigricans)
  • The body is cylindrical and darkly camouflaged
  • Found in clean streams
  • Overturn rock while scraping biofilm, and aquatic macroinvertebrates
catfishes
Catfishes
  • White Catfish
  • Yellow Bullhead
  • Brown Bullhead
  • Channel Catfish
  • Margined Madtom
  • Stonecat
  • Flathead Catfish
brown bullhead
Brown Bullhead
  • Brown Bullhead (Ameiurusnebulosus)
  • Cylindrical body with flattened head
  • Found in lakes, ponds and slow-moving rivers
  • Tolerate warm water and low oxygen
  • Omnivorous
channel catfish
Channel Catfish
  • Channel Catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus)
  • Body cylindrical with spots on the sides
  • Habitats vary; fast-moving water to deep pools, reservoirs, lakes, and farm ponds
  • Young eat insects but change to fish and plants as they get larger
margined madtom
Margined Madtom
  • Margined Madtom (Noturusinsignis)
  • Small, tubular fish; have poison glands associated with pectoral spines
  • Found in rocks in riffles
  • Feed on benthic macroinvertebrates
pikes
Pikes
  • Redfin Pickerel
  • Grass Pickerel
  • Northern Pike
  • Tiger Muskellunge
  • Muskellunge
  • Chain Pickerel
muskellunge
Muskellunge
  • The Muskellunge (Esoxmasquinongy)
  • Tubular fish, nearly 1.5M long
  • Found in large clean rivers with submerged vegetation
  • Ambush predator
chain pickerel
Chain Pickerel
  • The Chain Pickerel (Esoxniger)
  • Tubular body
  • Can be found in backwaters and in brown-water habitats; but can be found in deep lakes among weeds and stumps
  • Ambush predators
rainbow smelt
Rainbow Smelt
  • The Rainbow Smelt (Osmerusmordax)
  • Like a minnow with strong teeth
  • Anadromous fish introduced to the Great Lakes
  • Feed on insects and fish fry
trout and salmon
Trout and Salmon
  • Coho Salmon
  • Chinook Salmon
  • Pink Salmon
  • Rainbow Trout
  • Steelhead
  • Golden Rainbow Trout
  • Brown Trout
  • Brook trout
  • Lake trout
  • Atlantic Salmon
brook trout
Brook Trout
  • The Brook Trout (Salvelinusfontinalis)
  • Official State Fish of PA
  • Only stream trout native to PA
  • Low order cold, clean streams
  • Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, small fish
rainbow trout
Rainbow Trout
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss)
  • Introduced species
  • Lighter than the Brook and has a red lateral line
  • In fastwater streams
  • Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, and small fish
burbot
Burbot
  • Burbot (Lotalota)
  • Endangered native and member of the Cod family
  • Found in the Great Lakes and Allegheny River; requires cold, clean water
  • Feed on invertebrates and fishes
banded killifish
Banded Killifish
  • The Banded Killifish (Fundulusdiaphanus)
  • Established in most drainages in PA
  • Called topminnnow, but feed at all levels of slow-moving parts of streams
  • Eat macroinvertebrates, mainly insects and crustacea. Will take small fish.
threespine stickleback
Threespine Stickleback
  • The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteousaculeatus)
  • Endangered native
  • Fish are small, schooling fish with bony plates on their sides
  • Require clean, clear water in slow-moving parts of streams
  • Eat fish fry and eggs; insects and crustaceans
sculpins
Sculpins
  • There are two species of sculpins in PA waters: Mottled Sculpin (Cottusbairdi) and Slimy Sculpin (C. cognatus)
  • Freshwater members of a mostly marine family
  • Often found together with Brook Trout; require clean, clear, cold low order streams
temperate basses
Temperate Basses
  • This family includes White Perch (Moroneamericana), White Bass (M. chrysops), and Striped Bass (M. saxatilis)
  • Fish of large rivers and lakes; introduced into reservoirs
  • Travel in schools and feed on fish
sunfishes
Sunfishes
  • Redear Sunfish
  • Banded Sunfish
  • Blackbanded Sunfish
  • Bluespotted Sunfish
  • Warmouth
  • Mud Sunfish
  • Longear Sunfish
  • Rock Bass
  • Redbreast Sunfish
  • Green Sunfish
  • Pumpkinseed
  • Bluegill
  • Smallmouth Bass
  • Spotted Bass
  • Largemouth Bass
  • White Crappie
  • Black Crappie
bluegill
Bluegill
  • Bluegill (Lepomismacrochirus)
  • Oval deep body that is laterally-flattened
  • In lakes, ponds, and slow-moving parts of streams with submerged plants
  • Eat aquatic macroinvertebrates, small fish, and, occasionally, plants
smallmouth bass
Smallmouth Bass
  • The Smallmouth Bass (Micropterusdolomieui)
  • Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley; distributed elsewhere
  • Require rocky habitats, usually in, but not restricted to, moving water
  • Feed on crustaceans and fish
largemouth bass
Largemouth Bass
  • Largemouth Bass (Micropterussalmoides)
  • Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, now distributed throughout PA
  • Prefer warm water habitats; ponds and small lakes with submerged aquatics
  • They eat almost any animal that they can fit into their mouths
perches
Perches
  • Greenside Darter
  • Banded Darter
  • Rainbow Darter
  • Bluebreast Darter
  • Johnny Darter
  • Tesselated Darter
  • Gilt Darter
  • Spotted Darter
  • Longhead Darter
  • Eastern Sand Darter
  • Tippecanoe Darter
  • Yellow Perch
  • Logperch
  • Sauger
  • Saugeye
  • Walleye
tesselated darter
Tesselated Darter
  • The Tesselated Darter (Etheostomaolmstedi)
  • Tubular body with large pectoral fins
  • Sandy or rock bottom in flowing water
  • Eat small insects and crustaceans
yellow perch
Yellow Perch
  • Yellow Perch (Percaflavescens)
  • Throughout the northern US
  • In warm to cool lakes, ponds, and slow-moving parts of streams
  • Adults eat mainly small fish
walleye
Walleye
  • Walleye (Sander vitreus)
  • Native to the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley, they have been introduced as a sport fish to appropriate habitats in PA
  • In large lakes and rivers
  • Usually the top predator
freshwater drum
Freshwater Drum
  • The Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotusgrunniens)
  • Called croakers; mainly from a marine family
  • In the Great Lakes and the western rivers of PA
  • Feeds on mollusks, insects, and crustaceans
fishes classified according to habitat
Fishes Classified According to Habitat
  • Littoral Zone
  • Limnetic Zone
  • Benthic Zone
  • Streams
    • Upper Reaches
    • Middle Reaches
    • Lower reaches
fishes classified according to ecological conditions
Fishes Classified According to Ecological Conditions
  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Water Movement
  • Food
  • Social Factors
  • Population Density
  • Population Structure