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1900-1912

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  1. CHAPTER 19 The Promise and Perils of Progressive Reform 1900-1912 CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ

  2. “I am a working girl. One of those striking against intolerable conditions.” Clara Lemlich, 1909

  3. TIMELINE 1900 Dreiser’s Sister Carrie 1902 Chinese Exclusion Act Renewed 1903 Ford Motor Company established 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Sinclair’s The Jungle 1907 “Gentlemen’s Agreement” between Japan and United States Indiana enacts eugenic sterilization law 1908 Muller v. Oregon Taft elected President 1909 General worker’s strike Payne-Aldrich Tariff 1910 Mann Act Washington State grants women the right to vote 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management California grants women the vote 1913 Assembly line production introduced by Ford

  4. THE PROMISE AND PERILS OF PROGRESSIVE REFORM Overview • Migration and Immigration: The Changing Face of the Nation • Work, Science, and Leisure • Reformers and Radicals • Expanding National Power

  5. MIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION • The Heartland: Land of Newcomers • The Southwest: Mexican Borderlands • Asian Immigration and the Impact of Exclusion • Newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe

  6. Foreign-Born Population, 1900

  7. The Heartland: Land of Newcomers” • The Midwest: iron range • Native Americans move to reservations • By 1900, 35 European immigrant groups work the iron mines

  8. The Southwest: Mexican Borderlands • Mexican mine workers strike at Arizona Copper Company • Vigilante kidnapping of Anglo adopted children from Mexican parents upheld by Supreme Courts. • Mexican Revolution produced migration to U.S. Southwest

  9. Asian Immigration and the Impact of Exclusion • 1902: Chinese Exclusion Act renewed • “paper sons” and “paper fathers” • Sieh King King and women’s rights • Japanese immigrants to Hawaii and California • “picture brides” • “Gentlemen’s Agreement”: San Francisco school board discrimination case

  10. Newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe • Anti-Semitism, pograms, and impoverishment bring Eastern European Jews to America • Turmoil in Italy brings Italians to America and many other countries

  11. Areas Excluded from Immigration to the United States, 1882-1952

  12. WORK, SCIENCE, AND LEISURE • Reform and Science: An Uneasy Alliance • Scientific Management and Mass Production • New Amusements • “Sex O’Clock in America” • Artists Respond to the New Era

  13. Reform and Science: An Uneasy Alliance • Science and medicine improved public health, but crowding and poor sanitation brought disease • Typhoid Mary • Eugenics Movement • President Roosevelt and the call to Anglo-Saxon women to prevent “race-suicide” • Indiana enacted eugenic sterilization law in 1907

  14. Scientific Management and Mass Production • Increased efficiency • Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management • Ford and the assembly line

  15. New Amusements • Motion Pictures • Saloons • Amusement Parks • Ragtime Music • Cabarets • Follies Bergeres

  16. “Sex O’Clock in America” • Unchaperoned dating replaces old ways • Automobile gives privacy and freedom • Working women with leisure hours • More pregnant brides • Higher divorce rate • “Boston marriages”

  17. Artists Respond to the New Era • Ashcan School: painting life in the city • Henri, Glackens, Shinn, Sloan • Realism: detached and skeptical • Dreiser, Sister Carrie • Photography: Hine, Stieglitz, Steichen • Jazz • Derived from African-American music • “Jelly Roll” Morton, Charles “Buddy” Bolden

  18. REFORMERS AND RADICALS • Muckrakers, Moral Reform, and Vice Crusaders • Woman’s Suffrage • Radical Politics and the Labor Movement • Resistance to Racism

  19. Muckrakers, Moral Reform, and Vice Crusaders • Muckrakers: illuminating corruption • Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair • Reformers • National Child Labor Committee • Pure Food and Drug Act • Work conditions • Disabled • Vice

  20. Woman’s Suffrage • Through broader coalition, door-to-door campaigns and militancy women gained the right to vote in Washington in 1910, California in 1911, and 3 other states in 1912. • The suffrage movement and minorities • African American women and Ida B. Wells • Hispanic activist, Adeline Otero Warren

  21. Radical Politics and the Labor Movement • Radical Women: Emma Goldman, Sieh King King, Clara Lemlich • Socialism: Eugene V. Debs’ Socialist Party • Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)

  22. Resistance to Racism • 100 lynchings between 1900 and 1910 • Ida B. Wells-Barnett establishes black women’s clubs • W.E.B. DeBois and the Niagara Movement • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  23. EXPANDING NATIONAL POWER • The “Rough Rider” as President • Protecting and Preserving the Natural World • Expanding National Power Abroad • William Howard Taft: The One-Term Progressive

  24. The “Rough Rider” as President • Teddy Roosevelt: The “Bully Pulpit” and the expansion of American power • Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Northern Securities Company • Intervention in mine workers strike • The American “melting pot”

  25. Protecting and Preserving the Natural World • Preservation under Roosevelt: • Double the national parks, 16 new national monuments, 51 wildlife refuges • Conservation • 125 million acres of public land into forest reserves

  26. Expanding National Power Abroad • Roosevelt sent troops to stop the Boxer Rebellion in China • Panama Canal project • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Filipino nationalist war

  27. William Howard Taft: The One-Term Progressive • Antitrust suits, cabinet of corporate lawyers, reduction in tariffs • “Dollar Diplomacy” • Payne-Aldrich Tariff • Upsets conservationists • A split in the Republican Party produces Roosevelt’s Bull Moosers