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COMMERCIAL PAGING AND MUSIC SYSTEMS. NBFAA CEU # 96-0344 CARL FOUTZ. PURPOSE OF SOUND SYSTEM. ALLOWS AUDIO SIGNAL TO BE REPRODUCED AT HIGHER LEVEL FOR DISTRIBUTION INTO OTHER AREAS. TYPES OF SYSTEMS. PAGING ALERT OR NOTIFICATION BACKGROUND MUSIC LOW LEVEL AUDIO FOR "ATMOSPHERE"

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
COMMERCIAL PAGING AND MUSIC SYSTEMS

NBFAA CEU# 96-0344

CARL FOUTZ

slide2
PURPOSE OF SOUND SYSTEM
  • ALLOWS AUDIO SIGNAL TO BE REPRODUCED AT HIGHER LEVEL FOR DISTRIBUTION INTO OTHER AREAS.
slide3
TYPES OF SYSTEMS
  • PAGING
    • ALERT OR NOTIFICATION
  • BACKGROUND MUSIC
    • LOW LEVEL AUDIO FOR "ATMOSPHERE"
  • FOREGROUND MUSIC
    • HIGH LEVEL AUDIO FOR "ENTERTAINMENT"
slide4
HOW DOES IT WORK?
  • INPUT DEVICES (MICROPHONE, MUSIC SOURCE) SEND LOW LEVEL SIGNAL TO SIGNAL PROCESSOR
  • SIGNAL IS PROCESSED (AMPLIFIED, EQUALIZED, MIXED) AND SENT TO OUTPUT DEVICES
  • OUTPUT DEVICES DISTRIBUTE SIGNAL TO OTHER AREAS AT HIGHER LEVEL
slide5
HOW DOES IT WORK?

SIGNAL

PROCESSOR

INPUT

DEVICES

OUTPUT

DEVICES

slide6

UNDERSTANDING

SOUND LEVELS

slide7
WHAT IS A "dB"?
  • DECIBEL, A RELATIVE MEASUREMENT FOR SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (LOUDNESS)
slide8
TYPICAL dB LEVELS

RESTAURANT

NOISY OFFICE

SUPERMARKET

QUIET OFFICE

DIESEL TRUCK @ 50'

WHISPER

CONVERSATION

CONSTRUCTION SITE

10 dB

20 dB

40 dB

60 dB

80 dB

100 dB

120 dB

(THRESHOLD OF HEARING)

140 dB

0 dB

(THRESHOLD OF PAIN)

slide9
dB AND DISTANCE
  • EACH TIME DISTANCE FROM SPEAKER IS DOUBLED THE dB LEVEL IS REDUCED BY 3/4X (75%)
    • LOSS OF 6dB OF POWER
  • EACH TIME DISTANCE FROM SPEAKER IS HALVED THE dB LEVEL IS INCREASED BY 4X
    • GAIN OF 6dB OF POWER
slide10
DISTANCE EFFECT ON dB

4 FEET 8 FEET 16 FEET

90 dB 84 dB 78 dB

slide12
OHMS VS. WATTS
  • OHMS
    • SPEAKERS RATED BY OHM LOAD
    • SPEAKERS MUST BE BALANCED TO KEEP SYSTEM OHM LOAD CORRECT
  • WATTS
    • SPEAKERS ARE RATED BY WATTAGE
    • IS TOTALED TO DETERMINE AMPLIFIER LOAD
    • BALANCING LOAD NOT REQUIRED
slide13
25V OR 70V SPEAKER LINES?
  • COMMERCIAL PAGING/MUSIC SPEAKERS RUN ON 25V OR 70V SPEAKER CIRCUITS
    • 70V CAN RUN 8 TIMES THE DISTANCE OF 25V ON THE SAME GAUGE WIRE
slide14
25 VOLT WIRING DISTANCES

WIRE

GAUGE

TOTAL WATTAGE

1W

1000

5000

8000

5W

300

1000

1800

10W

200

500

800

25W

70

300

200

50W

40

100

150

100W

15

50

70

22 AWG

18 AWG

16 AWG

slide15
70 VOLT WIRING DISTANCES

WIRE

GAUGE

TOTAL WATTAGE

10W

2000

5000

7000

25W

600

1800

2500

50W

400

800

2500

100W

150

400

700

1W

10000

12000

14000

5W

3000

7000

12000

22 AWG

18 AWG

16 AWG

slide16
SPEAKER WIRING
  • RUN IN PARALLEL
  • T-TAPPING IS PERMITTED
  • KEEP BLACK (COMMON) AND WATTAGE TAP (COLORED) WIRE ON SAME CONDUCTOR THROUGHOUT
slide17
SUGGESTED SPEAKER LOAD ALLOWANCES

AMBIENT

NOISE LEVEL CEILING HORN/BOX

QUIET (50-70dB) 1/2 TO 1 WATT 1 TO 5 WATT NOISY (74-85dB) 1 TO 2 WATT 5 TO 10 WATT

VERY NOISY (86-96dB) 2 TO 4 WATT 10 TO 15 WATT

relationship between amp power sound pressure
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMP POWER & SOUND PRESSURE
  • 2 WATTS = + 3DB
  • 4 WATTS = + 6DB
  • 10WATTS= +10DB (TWICE AS LOUD AS 1 WATT)
  • 20WATTS = +13DB
  • 40WATTS = +16DB
  • 100WATTS= +20DB (FOUR TIMES AS LOUD AS 1 WATT)
  • 200WATTS= +23DB
  • 400WATTS= +26DB
  • 1000WATTS=+30DB (EIGHT TIMES AS LOUD AS 1 WATT)
slide19
DISTANCE EFFECT ON dB

4 FEET 8 FEET 16 FEET

90 dB 84 dB 78 dB

slide20
AMPLIFIER SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
  • WATTAGE REQUIRED?
    • SPEAKER LOAD
  • INPUTS REQUIRED?
    • MICROPHONE, MUSIC, TELEPHONE
  • SPECIAL FEATURES
    • EQUALIZER, TALKBACK, ZONING
slide21
MAXIMUM SOUND, MINIMUM SMOKE

ALWAYS SIZE THE AMPLIFIER TO THE SPEAKER LOAD, NOT THE SPEAKER LOAD TO THE AMPLIFIER!

slide23
SPEAKER PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
  • AMBIENT (BACKGROUND) NOISE LEVEL
  • DISTANCE TO TARGET AREA
  • APPLICATION
    • PAGING OR BACKGROUND MUSIC
slide24
CEILING SPEAKER SPACING
  • CEILING SPEAKERS SHOULD BE SPACED AT TWO TIMES (2X) THE CEILING HEIGHT
    • SPEAKER SPACING == CEILING HEIGHT X 2
  • SPACED EQUAL TO CEILING HEIGHT (1X) FROM WALLS
slide25
SPEAKER SPACING-TOP VIEW

1X CEILING HEIGHT

2X CEILING HEIGHT

slide26
SPEAKER SPACING-SIDE VIEW

2X CEILING HEIGHT

CEILING HEIGHT

slide27
ON CEILING SPEAKERS...
  • BACKGROUND LEVEL MUSIC/NORMAL PAGING
    • NORMAL CEILING SPEAKER SPACING (2X)
  • FOREGROUND LEVEL MUSIC/NOISY AREA PAGING
    • HALF NORMAL SPACING (1X)
    • TWICE AS MANY SPEAKERS REQUIRED
slide28
SPEAKER MOUNTING
  • PLENUM CEILING
    • MAY REQUIRE PLENUM CABLE OR CONDUIT
  • BACK BOXES
    • MAY BE REQUIRED ON PLENUM OR PLASTER CEILING
  • TILE SUPPORT
    • RECOMMENDED ON DROP CEILINGS
slide29
SETTING CEILING SPEAKER WATTAGE

BLACK IS COMMON

WATTAGE SET BY

COLORED WIRES

slide31
PAGING HORN COVERAGE

40 FEET

30 TO 120 FEET

(DEPENDING ON AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL)

slide32
HORN FORWARD PROJECTION

AMBIENT SQUARE FT.

NOISE LEVEL PROJECTION COVERAGE

QUIET (50-70dB) 120 FEET 5000 S.F. NOISY (74-85dB) 60 FEET 2500 S.F.VERY NOISY (86-96dB) 30 FEET 1250 S.F.

slide33
DISTANCE EFFECT ON dB

4 FEET 8 FEET 16 FEET

90 dB 84 dB 78 dB

slide34
STAGGERED PATTERN

ALL HORNS FACING SAME DIRECTION

slide35
OPPOSITE PATTERN

HORNS FACING OPPOSITE DIRECTION

NO OTHER HORNS FACING INTO THESE

slide36
IMPROPER HORN LOCATION

NEVER!

CAUSES CANCELLATION AND

DECREASED INTELLIGIBILITY!

slide37
SETTING HORN/BOX SPEAKER WATTAGE

WATTAGE TAP SET BY ROTATING SWITCH OR SETTING DIP

SWITCHES

slide39
WHEN TO USE BOX SPEAKERS?
  • MUSIC ONLY OR PAGING WITH MUSIC APPLICATIONS
  • PROVIDES BETTER QUALITY SOUND FOR MUSIC THAN HORNS
  • ONLY HALF THE COVERAGE OF HORNS
slide40
BOX SPEAKER COVERAGE

20 FEET

15 TO 60 FEET

(DEPENDING ON AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL)

slide41
BOX FORWARD PROJECTION

AMBIENT SQUARE FT.

NOISE LEVEL PROJECTION COVERAGE

QUIET (50-70dB) 60 FEET 2500 S.F. NOISY (74-85dB) 30 FEET 1250 S.F.VERY NOISY (86-96dB) 15 FEET 625 S.F.

slide43
PAGING AND MUSIC SOURCE WIRING
  • MICROPHONES
    • INDIVIDUALLY HOME RUN TO AMPLIFIER
    • 2C OR 4C (PREFERRED) SHIELDED CABLE
  • MUSIC SOURCES
    • INDIVIDUALLY HOME RUN TO AMPLIFIER
    • 2C SHIELDED CABLE
slide44

BLACK (COMMON)

WIRING

2C OR 4C

SHIELDED

AMPLIFIER

MICROPHONE

2C

SHIELDED

MUSIC

SOURCE

WATTAGE TAP(COLORED)

slide45
SPEAKER ZONE PAGING

ZONE PAGING

MODULE

SPEAKER

AMPLIFIER

SPEAKER

PAGING INTO DIFFERENT AREAS (ZONES) BY SWITCHING AMPLIFIER OUTPUT TO DIFFERENT SPEAKERS

slide46
AMPLIFIER ZONE PAGING

AMPLIFIER #1

ZONE PAGING

MODULE

SPEAKER

AMPLIFIER

#2

SPEAKER

PAGING INTO DIFFERENT AREAS (ZONES) BY SWITCHING MIC OUTPUT TO DIFFERENT AMPLIFIERS

slide47

SPECIAL

APPLICATIONS

slide48
TELEPHONE PAGING

TELEPHONE

KSU

AMPLIFIER

SPEAKER

ISOLATION/MATCHING

TRANSFORMER

AMPLIFIER CONNECTED TO PAGING PORT OR

UNUSED C.O. LINE ON THE PHONE SYSTEM

slide49
TALKBACK PAGING

TELEPHONE

KSU

TALKBACK AMPLIFIER

TALKBACK

SPEAKER

C.O. LINE

PAGING INTERFACE

AMPLIFIER CONNECTED TO UNUSED C.O. LINE ON THE PHONE SYSTEM

  • TALKBACK AMPLIFIER REQUIRED