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Part II: OWL-S Technical Overview. Profile, Process & Grounding ontologies Next Steps & Future Directions SWSI, SWSL & SWSA. DAML-S Web Services Coalition. BBN: Mark Burstein CMU: Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci* ICSI : Srini Narayanan Maryland / College Park : Bijan Parsia

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part ii owl s technical overview

Part II: OWL-STechnical Overview

  • Profile, Process & Grounding ontologies
  • Next Steps & Future Directions
    • SWSI, SWSL & SWSA
daml s web services coalition
DAML-S Web Services Coalition

BBN: Mark Burstein

CMU: Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci*

ICSI: Srini Narayanan

Maryland / College Park: Bijan Parsia

Nokia: Ora Lassila

Stanford KSL: Sheila McIlraith*

SRI: David Martin*

Southampton: Terry Payne*

USC-ISI: Jerry Hobbs

Yale: Drew McDermott

*Contributor to these slides

what is owl s
What is OWL-S?
  • Ontology Web Language for Services
  • An OWL ontology/language for (formally) describing properties and capabilities of Web services
  • An approach that draws on many sources
    • Description logic
    • AI planning
    • Workflow
    • Formal process modeling
    • Agents
    • Web services
  • http://www.daml.org/services/
layered approach to language development

DAML+OIL  OWL(Ontology)

RDFS (RDF Schema)

RDF (Resource Description Framework)

XML (Extensible Markup Language)

Layered Approach to Language Development

OWL-S: a major application of OWL

Future versions will build upon emerging layers (e.g. DAML-Rules)

OWL-S (Services)

DAML-??? (Rules, FOL?)

owl s objectives
OWL-S Objectives

Automation of service use by software agents

Ideal: full-fledged use of services never before encountered:

Discovery, selection, composition, invocation, monitoring, ..

Useful in the “real world”

Compatible with industry standards

Incremental exploitation

Enable reasoning/planning about services

e.g., On-the-fly composition

Integrated use with information resources

Ease of use; powerful tools

automation enabled by owl s
Automation Enabled by OWL-S
  • Web service discovery
    • Find me a shipping service that transports goods to Dubai.
  • Web service invocation
    • Buy me 500 lbs. powdered milk from www.acmemoo.com
  • Web service selection & composition
    • Arrange food for 500 people for 2 weeks in Dubai.
  • Web service execution monitoring
    • Has the powdered milk been ordered and paid for yet?
slide7

Key:

Publication

Profile

Discovery

Simulation

Selection

Process Model

Verification

Composition

Execution, Interoperation

Grounding

Monitoring, Recovery

Development … Deployment … Use …

upper ontology of services
Upper Ontology of Services

Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, University of Southampton

service profile what does it do
Service Profile:“What does it do?”

High-level characterization/summary of a service

Used for

  • Populating service registries
    • A service can have many profiles
  • Automated service discovery
  • Service selection (matchmaking)

One can derive:

  • Service advertisements
  • Service requests
service profile
Service Profile

Non Functional Properties

Functionality Description

service profile functionality description
Functional Specification of what the service provides in terms of parameters, subclassed as:

preconditions

inputs

outputs

effects

Summarizes the top-level Process

Service Profile: Functionality Description
service profile nonfunctional properties13
These include

serviceName

textDescription

qualityRating

serviceParameter

serviceCategory

contactInformation

Service Profile: NonFunctional Properties
service profile styles of use
Service Profile:Styles of use
  • Class-hierarchical yellow pages
    • Implicit capability characterization
    • Arrangement of attributes on class hierarchy
    • Can use multiple inheritance
    • Relies primarily on “non-functional” properties
  • Process summaries for planning purposes
    • More explicit
    • Inputs, outputs, preconditions, effects
    • Less reliance on formal hierarchical organization
    • Summarizes process model specs
    • Relies primarily on functional description
exploiting profile hierarchies
Exploiting Profile Hierarchies

Tie in with UDDI, UNSPSC, …DL Basis for matchmakingMultiple profiles; multiple taxonomies

service model how does it work

Process Model: “How does it work?”

Service Model“How does it work?”

Process

    • Interpretable description of service provider’s behavior
    • Tells service user how and when to interact (read/write messages)

& Process control

    • Ontology of process state; supports status queries
    • (stubbed out at present)
  • Used for:
    • Service invocation, planning/composition, interoperation, monitoring
  • All processes have
    • Inputs, outputs, preconditions and effects
    • Function/dataflow metaphor; action/process metaphor
  • Composite processes
    • Control flow
    • Data flow
function dataflow metaphor
Function/Dataflow Metaphor

Input:

Output:

  • customer name
  • origin
  • destination
  • weight
  • pickup date
  • ...
  • confirmation no.
  • ...

Acme Book

Truck Shipment

Y

truck available

+

valid credit card

?

N

  • failure notification
ai inspired action process metaphor

Acme Book

Truck Shipment

AI-inspired Action/Process Metaphor

Output:

  • confirmation no.
  • ...

Input:

  • customer name
  • origin
  • destination
  • pickup date
  • ...
  • goods at location
  • if successful
  • credit card debited...

Effect:

Y

truck available

+

valid credit card

?

Preconditions:

N

  • knowledge of
  • the input
  • ...
  • failure notification

Output:

<no effect>

Effect:

composite process
Composite Process

Output &

Effects

Input &

Preconditions

AcmeTruckShpng

  • confirmation no.
  • ...
  • customer name
  • location
  • car type
  • dates
  • credit card no.
  • ...

www.acmecar.com

book car service

?

  • failure notification

?

  • confirmation no.
  • ...
  • confirmation no.
  • dates
  • room type
  • credit card no.
  • ...

www.acmehotel.com

book hotel service

  • confirmation no.
  • ...

?

  • customer name
  • flight numbers
  • dates
  • credit card no.
  • ...

www.acmeair.com

book flight service

?

  • failure notification
  • failure notification
  • errror information
atomic process example
Atomic Process Example

<!– Atomic Process Definition - GetDesiredFlightDetails -->

<rdfs:Class rdf:ID="GetDesiredFlightDetails">

<rdfs:subClassOfrdf:resource="http://www.daml.org/Process#AtomicProcess" />

</rdfs:Class>

<!– (sample) Inputs used by atomic processGetDesiredFlightDetails -->

<rdf:Property rdf:ID="departureAirport_In">

<rdfs:subPropertyOfrdf:resource="http://www.daml.org/Process#input" />

<rdfs:domainrdf:resource="#GetDesiredFlightDetails" />

<rdfs:rangerdf:resource="http://www.daml.ri.cmu.edu/ont/

DAML-S/concepts.daml#Airport" />

</rdf:Property>

<rdf:Property rdf:ID="outbounDate_In">

<rdfs:subPropertyOfrdf:resource="http://www.daml.org/Process#input" />

<rdfs:domainrdf:resource="#GetDesiredFlightDetails" />

<rdfs:rangerdf:resource="http://www.daml.ri.cmu.edu/ont/

DAML-S/concepts.daml#FlightDate" />

</rdf:Property>

departureAirport_In

Airport

GetDesired Flight Details

Flight Date

outboundDate_In

composite process example
Composite Process Example

<rdfs:Class rdf:ID="BookFlight">

<rdfs:subClassOfrdf:resource="#CompositeProcess" />

<rdfs:subClassOfrdf:resource="http://www.daml.org/Process#Sequence" />

<daml:subClassOf>

<daml:Restriction>

<daml:onPropertyrdf:resource="http://www.daml.org/Process#components" />

<daml:toClass>

<daml:subClassOf>

<daml:unionOf rdf:parseType="daml:collection">

<rdfs:Classrdfs:about="#GetFlightDetails" />

<rdfs:Classrdfs:about="#GetContactDetails" />

<rdfs:Classrdfs:about="#ReserveFlight" />

<rdfs:Classrdfs:about="#ConfirmReservation" />

</daml:unionOf>

</daml:subClassOf>

</daml:toClass>

</daml:Restriction>

</daml:subClassOf>

</rdfs:Class>

Composite Process

BookFlight

Get Flight Details

Get Contact Details

Confirm Reservation

Reserve Flight

Sequence

Sequence

Sequence

simple and composite processes

Confirm Shipping Region

truck available

+

valid credit card

N

Acme

Truck

Shipping

Service

Y

expands

Get Quote

Get Shipping Dates

Book Truck Shipment

Simple and Composite Processes

AcmeTruckShpng

ExpandedAcmeTruckShpng

service grounding how to access it
Service Grounding: “How to access it”
  • Implementation-specific
  • Message formatting, transport mechanisms, protocols, serializations of types
  • Service Model + Grounding give everything needed for using the service
  • Builds upon WSDL
owl s wsdl grounding
OWL-S / WSDL Grounding
  • Web Services Description Language
    • Authored by IBM, Ariba, Microsoft
    • Focus of W3C Web Services Description WG
    • Commercial momentum
    • Specifies message syntax accepted/generated by communication ports
    • Bindings to popular message/transport standards (SOAP, HTTP, MIME)
    • Abstract “types”; extensibility elements
  • Complementary with OWL-S
owl s wsdl grounding29
OWL-S / WSDL Grounding

OWL-S

Resources/Concepts

Process Model

Inputs / Outputs

Atomic Process

Message

Operation

Binding to SOAP, HTTP, etc.

WSDL

owl s wsdl grounding cont d31
OWL-S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)

WSDLDocument

<message …> <part …><message …> <part …> <operation …><binding …>

daml-property

inputX

daml-property

outputY

owl-s-process

AtomicProcess

path of evolution
Path of Evolution

Release 0.5 (May 2001)

Initial Profile & Process ontologies

Release 0.6 (December 2001)

Refinements to Profile & Process; Resources ontology

Release 0.7 (October 2002)

Initial DAML-S/WSDL Grounding;

Profile, Process Model refinements; more complete examples

Release 0.9 (May 2003) - just announced

DAML-S  OWL-S

Grounding: greater generality, flexibility

Initial work on expressing conditions, security

More community support (contributions pages)

Towards 1.0

Expressiveness issues; exceptions, lifecycle; process issues

critical path to 1 0
Critical Path to 1.0
  • OWL-final
  • Process Model
    • Exceptions
    • Process Control Ontology (lifecycle mgmt.)
    • Roles, explicit messaging
    • Surface language?
  • Grounding
    • WSDL 1.2
swsi objectives
SWSI Objectives
  • Bring together US and European Semantic Web Services researchers
  • Engage in collaborative standardization efforts
    • Semantic Web Services Language
      • DAML-S as a primary input
      • More attention to working with industry standards efforts
    • Semantic Web Services Architecture
  • Close collaboration with W3C directions
    • Web Service Choreography Working Group
    • Semantic Web Services Interest Group
    • Likely outcome is a W3C Note
swsi structure
SWSI Structure
  • Advisory Committee
    • Murray Burke, Hans-Georg Stork, Jim Hendler
  • Coordinating Committee
    • Co-chairs: Dieter Fensel and Katia Sycara
  • Industrial Advisory Board
    • Co-chairs: Michael Uschold and ???
  • Language Technical Committee
    • Co-chairs: David Martin and Michael Kifer
  • Architecture Technical Committee
    • Co-chairs: Mark Burstein and Christoph Bussler
challenges
Challenges
  • Profiles: relationship with processes
  • Process modeling: many issues
    • Variability of public/private aspects of Processes
    • Extending to offline (sub)processes
    • Generalizing to multiple roles
    • Failure, transactions
  • Where and how to go beyond OWL?
    • Interface between DL ontology, logical expressions, algorithm/workflow representation
  • Connecting with Industry
    • Showing compelling value
    • Not promising too much
    • Providing an incremental path
some related work
(Some) Related Work
  • Related Industrial Initiatives
    • UDDI • ebXML
    • WSDL • .Net
    • XLANG • Biztalk, e-speak, etc
  • These XML-based initiatives are largely complementary to OWL-S.
  • OWL-S aims to build on top of these efforts enabling increased expressiveness, semantics, and inference enabling automation.
  • Related Academic Efforts
    • Process Algebras (e.g., Pi Calculus)
    • Process Specification Language (Hoare Logic, PSL)
    • Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL)
    • Business Process Modeling (e.g., BMPL)
    • OntoWeb Process Modeling Effort