MOCHE CULTURE Northern Coastal Peru, c. 100 C.E to 800 C.E - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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MOCHE CULTURE Northern Coastal Peru, c. 100 C.E to 800 C.E

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  1. MOCHE CULTURE Northern Coastal Peru, c. 100 C.E to 800 C.E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM04wP_ep_Y

  2. Moche stirrup spout portrait vessel, (detail) unidentified artist, painted and slipped earthenware, 11 ½ “H. c.450 CE

  3. (right) Peruvian, Moche, Male Effigy Vessel, unidentified artist, painted earthenware, 9 7/16 in H, A.D. 100-600Compare (left) self-portrait mug by Paul Gauguin, c. 1889

  4. Moche, Portraits of “Cut Lip” (L-R) at about 10 yrs, early 20s, and middle 30s ceramic, c. 300 CE

  5. Moche, Portraits of Bigote, head (right) and full body as warrior (left) ceramic, 430 CE

  6. Moche (left) Man with a Flower Headdress, painted earthenware, 10” H, 100-600 CE(right) Stirrup Head Vessel, painted earthenware c 12” H, 100-600 CE

  7. Moche, Male Effigy Vessel (stirrup missing), unidentified artist, painted earthenware4 in H, A.C. 100-600

  8. Mesoamerica Olmec to Aztec

  9. Olmec Centralized along the Gulf Coast of Mexico around the modern city of Veracruz, the Olmec culture appeared as early as 1500 BCE and lasted until about 400 BCE. The Olmec are the first of the great Mesoamerican civilizations. They laid the foundations for those that followed. Jadite mask, 10th-6th C. BCE

  10. Olmec: the first Mesoamerican high civilization, 1500–400 BCE.Map shows Olmec sites of influenceand(right) Colossal Head, one of 10 Olmec heads, four at San Lorenzo in Veracruz, Mexico, over 9ft high, Early Pre-classic, c.1500-1200 BCE.

  11. Olmec culture. The yellow dots represent ancient habitation sites; the red dots represent artifact finds.

  12. Olmec head: (left) excavation, Veracruz, ca 1942; (below) at Anthropological Museum, Xalapa. The largest of the colossal heads is over 9’ high and weighs more than 25 tons, made of basalt, a stone that was brought from the Tuxtla mountains. (upper right) National Geographic artist rendering of transportation of colossal head.

  13. Kunz Axe, Mexico, Olmec, 800-500 BCE, Jade, American Museum of Natural History, New York City

  14. (left) Olmec ”Wrestler,” basalt figure of a bearded man, Veracruz, 26” H National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City(right) Olmec, Las Limas Monument, greenstone, “priest” holding Rain God deity from Las Limas, Veracruz, Middle Preclassic period, 21.5” high. Knees and shoulders incised - profile heads of four Olmec gods with cleft heads: considered Olmec Rosetta Stone, but all assertions of meaning are speculation.

  15. Las Limas Monument shows an androgenous youth holding a were-jaguar infant. The tatoo-like incised dieties (below) on shoulders and knees are thought to represent the Olmec pantheon. The four supernaturals show several common Olmec motifs, in particular the cleft head. Right shoulder Right leg Left shoulder Left leg

  16. Olmec culture, San Lorenzo, first site, Early Preclassic, (c.1000 BCE) drainage system has been compared with Nile civilizations of Egypt

  17. Olmec, north end of Altar 5 at La Venta. Two adult figures carry were-jaguar babies

  18. La Venta, Stele with Three Kings, Olmec

  19. Olmec, La Venta, mosaicserpentine “floor” that had been carefully buried (See Miller)

  20. Olmec carved jade and serpentine figures and celts (ceremonial hand axes) and figures, excavated at a corner of a basalt courtyard, La Venta, figurines (found arranged as a tableau) are c. 8”H; celts are 9” to 10” H. Cranial deformation, loincloths, half-open mouths with deformed teeth

  21. Olmec “frontier”: hollow figures, white slipped ceramic, all 11-16” H, Early Formative (100-800 BCE)Later Mesoamerican cultures induced crossed eyes during infancy – sign of beauty and elegance

  22. Olmec, "Hollow baby" white ware figure, c. 100-800 BCE, Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México

  23. Teotihuacán c. 150-550 CE The Temple of Quetzlcoatl, Teotihuacán

  24. Teotihuacán ["the place where one becomes a god“] looking down the Avenue of the Dead from the Pyramid of the Moon; map of Teotihuacán heartland and area of influence. C. 150-550AD

  25. Teotihuacán with archaeological map showing distinct quarters of the city occupied by Otomi, Zapotec, Mixtec, Maya and Nahua peoples.

  26. (left) The so-called Great Goddess, largest finished free-standing monument, found at Teotihuacán in front of the Pyramid of the Sun, Early Classic period,10 ft high; (right) Stone mask, Early Classic, shell, obsidian and malachite mosaic

  27. Teotihuacánceramics: (left) tripod vase with sgraffito (“cloisonné) design of Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent) 600-750 CE; (right) sgraffito vessel with Tlaloc (rain/storm god) usual goggle-shaped eyes and fanged mouth. Cloisonné pottery involves coating the vessel's surface with a lime stucco-like substance then applying colors between incised lines.

  28. Teotihuacán, Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent), exterior sculptural decoration, Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the major temple structure within the administrative ceremonial center believed to have been built ca. 200/250 C.E. by a powerful ruler of Teotihuacán

  29. Burial of warriors sacrificed at the dedication of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, Teotihuacán, c. 250-300 CE. Note human mandibles and maxilla necklaces and spear heads

  30. Teotihuacán, Patio of Quetzalpapalotl (Quetzal-Butterfly”) Palace, with year symbol roof carvings; (below right) mural in true fresco technique showing Tlaloc (rain god) and (left) a artist's reconstruction of the "Tlalocan" (paradise of the rain god) fresco

  31. Teotihuacán palace courtyard, reconstructed

  32. Toltecca 800–1100 CE

  33. “Toltec” in Nahuatl means master builders. The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c.900 CE after the fall of Teotihuacán. A period of southward expansion began c.1000 and resulted in Toltec domination of the Maya of Yucatan from the 11th to the 13th centuries.

  34. Toltec site of Tula, State of Hidalgo, Mexico, with ruins of Pyramid B and colossal 15 ft. high Atlantean columns of warriors ready for combat with atlatl (spear thrower) at side, butterfly pectoral, and drum headdress

  35. Toltec, Tula Atlantes, Pyramid B. Temple roof supports carved as Toltec warriors (back view). (below) Tula stone bas-reliefs from Coatepantli (Serpent Wall), carvings of human skull in the jaws of a snake. At its apogee Tula covered 5.4 sq. miles and contained a population of 30,000 – 40,000

  36. Toltec, 10th -12th Century, CE) stone “chacmool” (red jaguar) from Tula, only complete one of seven at site, Post-Classical period

  37. Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, Temple of the Warriors, Early Post-classic (900-1200 CE). Toltec-Maya. Note Chacmool figure at top and colonnades that once supported a roof. Compare withToltec Pyramid B at Tula.

  38. Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, Temple of the Warriors, Early Post-classic. Toltec-Maya. Chacmool figure at top Photo courtesy Joel Swonsen