MOCHE CULTURE Northern Coastal Peru, c. 100 C.E to 800 C.E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM04wP_ep_Y
Moche stirrup spout portrait vessel, (detail) unidentified artist, painted and slipped earthenware, 11 ½ “H. c.450 CE
(right) Peruvian, Moche, Male Effigy Vessel, unidentified artist, painted earthenware, 9 7/16 in H, A.D. 100-600Compare (left) self-portrait mug by Paul Gauguin, c. 1889
Moche, Portraits of “Cut Lip” (L-R) at about 10 yrs, early 20s, and middle 30s ceramic, c. 300 CE
Moche, Portraits of Bigote, head (right) and full body as warrior (left) ceramic, 430 CE
Moche (left) Man with a Flower Headdress, painted earthenware, 10” H, 100-600 CE(right) Stirrup Head Vessel, painted earthenware c 12” H, 100-600 CE
Moche, Male Effigy Vessel (stirrup missing), unidentified artist, painted earthenware4 in H, A.C. 100-600
Mesoamerica Olmec to Aztec
Olmec Centralized along the Gulf Coast of Mexico around the modern city of Veracruz, the Olmec culture appeared as early as 1500 BCE and lasted until about 400 BCE. The Olmec are the first of the great Mesoamerican civilizations. They laid the foundations for those that followed. Jadite mask, 10th-6th C. BCE
Olmec: the first Mesoamerican high civilization, 1500–400 BCE.Map shows Olmec sites of influenceand(right) Colossal Head, one of 10 Olmec heads, four at San Lorenzo in Veracruz, Mexico, over 9ft high, Early Pre-classic, c.1500-1200 BCE.
Olmec culture. The yellow dots represent ancient habitation sites; the red dots represent artifact finds.
Olmec head: (left) excavation, Veracruz, ca 1942; (below) at Anthropological Museum, Xalapa. The largest of the colossal heads is over 9’ high and weighs more than 25 tons, made of basalt, a stone that was brought from the Tuxtla mountains. (upper right) National Geographic artist rendering of transportation of colossal head.
Kunz Axe, Mexico, Olmec, 800-500 BCE, Jade, American Museum of Natural History, New York City
(left) Olmec ”Wrestler,” basalt figure of a bearded man, Veracruz, 26” H National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City(right) Olmec, Las Limas Monument, greenstone, “priest” holding Rain God deity from Las Limas, Veracruz, Middle Preclassic period, 21.5” high. Knees and shoulders incised - profile heads of four Olmec gods with cleft heads: considered Olmec Rosetta Stone, but all assertions of meaning are speculation.
Las Limas Monument shows an androgenous youth holding a were-jaguar infant. The tatoo-like incised dieties (below) on shoulders and knees are thought to represent the Olmec pantheon. The four supernaturals show several common Olmec motifs, in particular the cleft head. Right shoulder Right leg Left shoulder Left leg
Olmec culture, San Lorenzo, first site, Early Preclassic, (c.1000 BCE) drainage system has been compared with Nile civilizations of Egypt
Olmec, north end of Altar 5 at La Venta. Two adult figures carry were-jaguar babies
Olmec, La Venta, mosaicserpentine “floor” that had been carefully buried (See Miller)
Olmec carved jade and serpentine figures and celts (ceremonial hand axes) and figures, excavated at a corner of a basalt courtyard, La Venta, figurines (found arranged as a tableau) are c. 8”H; celts are 9” to 10” H. Cranial deformation, loincloths, half-open mouths with deformed teeth
Olmec “frontier”: hollow figures, white slipped ceramic, all 11-16” H, Early Formative (100-800 BCE)Later Mesoamerican cultures induced crossed eyes during infancy – sign of beauty and elegance
Olmec, "Hollow baby" white ware figure, c. 100-800 BCE, Museo Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México
Teotihuacán c. 150-550 CE The Temple of Quetzlcoatl, Teotihuacán
Teotihuacán ["the place where one becomes a god“] looking down the Avenue of the Dead from the Pyramid of the Moon; map of Teotihuacán heartland and area of influence. C. 150-550AD
Teotihuacán with archaeological map showing distinct quarters of the city occupied by Otomi, Zapotec, Mixtec, Maya and Nahua peoples.
(left) The so-called Great Goddess, largest finished free-standing monument, found at Teotihuacán in front of the Pyramid of the Sun, Early Classic period,10 ft high; (right) Stone mask, Early Classic, shell, obsidian and malachite mosaic
Teotihuacánceramics: (left) tripod vase with sgraffito (“cloisonné) design of Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent) 600-750 CE; (right) sgraffito vessel with Tlaloc (rain/storm god) usual goggle-shaped eyes and fanged mouth. Cloisonné pottery involves coating the vessel's surface with a lime stucco-like substance then applying colors between incised lines.
Teotihuacán, Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent), exterior sculptural decoration, Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the major temple structure within the administrative ceremonial center believed to have been built ca. 200/250 C.E. by a powerful ruler of Teotihuacán
Burial of warriors sacrificed at the dedication of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, Teotihuacán, c. 250-300 CE. Note human mandibles and maxilla necklaces and spear heads
Teotihuacán, Patio of Quetzalpapalotl (Quetzal-Butterfly”) Palace, with year symbol roof carvings; (below right) mural in true fresco technique showing Tlaloc (rain god) and (left) a artist's reconstruction of the "Tlalocan" (paradise of the rain god) fresco
“Toltec” in Nahuatl means master builders. The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c.900 CE after the fall of Teotihuacán. A period of southward expansion began c.1000 and resulted in Toltec domination of the Maya of Yucatan from the 11th to the 13th centuries.
Toltec site of Tula, State of Hidalgo, Mexico, with ruins of Pyramid B and colossal 15 ft. high Atlantean columns of warriors ready for combat with atlatl (spear thrower) at side, butterfly pectoral, and drum headdress
Toltec, Tula Atlantes, Pyramid B. Temple roof supports carved as Toltec warriors (back view). (below) Tula stone bas-reliefs from Coatepantli (Serpent Wall), carvings of human skull in the jaws of a snake. At its apogee Tula covered 5.4 sq. miles and contained a population of 30,000 – 40,000
Toltec, 10th -12th Century, CE) stone “chacmool” (red jaguar) from Tula, only complete one of seven at site, Post-Classical period
Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, Temple of the Warriors, Early Post-classic (900-1200 CE). Toltec-Maya. Note Chacmool figure at top and colonnades that once supported a roof. Compare withToltec Pyramid B at Tula.
Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, Temple of the Warriors, Early Post-classic. Toltec-Maya. Chacmool figure at top Photo courtesy Joel Swonsen