Certification standards in north america for gas boilers and water heaters
Download
1 / 65

Certification Standards in North America for Gas Boilers and Water Heaters - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 458 Views
  • Uploaded on

Certification Standards in North America for Gas Boilers and Water Heaters. John Gorman – Technical Advisor – CSA International. AGENDA. General Issues Boiler Standards in North America Water Heater Standards in North America Installation Codes Gases used in North America

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Certification Standards in North America for Gas Boilers and Water Heaters' - huy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Certification standards in north america for gas boilers and water heaters

Certification Standards in North America for Gas Boilers and Water Heaters

John Gorman – Technical Advisor – CSA International


Agenda
AGENDA Water Heaters

  • General Issues

  • Boiler Standards in North America

  • Water Heater Standards in North America

  • Installation Codes

  • Gases used in North America

  • Efficiency Requirements – Boilers and Water Heaters

  • Key Evaluations – Pressure Vessels, Sanitation, Venting, Controls, Wiring/Electrical Components, Manuals/Markings, NOx, Production Line Testing

  • Combination Type Heaters


Standards development and maintenance general issues
Standards Development and Maintenance – General Issues Water Heaters

  • Standards are in constant revision.

    • Committees meet one or more times a year to revise standards

    • Base standard plus to addenda’s (a and b addenda) are issued

    • The standards have sections within them that identify requirements unique to either the United States or Canada

  • CSA International is not a voting member of a standards committee.

    • Provides technical support

    • Suggests revisions to standards

    • CSA America (standards division) is secretariat for the ANSI/CSA gas standards


Standards in north america gas fired boilers
Standards in North America – Gas-Fired Boilers Water Heaters

  • ANSI Z21.13/CSA 4.9 – Gas-Fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers

    • Is used for certification in the United States and Canada

    • Includes boilers with input ratings up to 12,500,000 Btu/hr (3660 kW)

    • Only covers boilers with gas inlet pressure ratings not more than ½ psi (35 mbar)

    • Hot water boilers operate at or below 160 psi (11 bar) water pressure and 250 F (121 C) water temperature

    • Requires compliance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV (“Heating Boilers”)


Standards in north america gas fired boilers1
Standards in North America – Gas-Fired Boilers Water Heaters

  • UL 795 – Commercial-Industrial Gas Heating Equipment

    • Certification in the United States only

    • Commercial Boilers over 400,000 Btu/Hr (117 kW)

    • Covers boilers with gas pressures greater that ½ psi (35 mbar)

  • CAN1-3.1 – Industrial and Commercial Gas-Fired Package Boilers

    • Certification for Canada only

    • Commercial boilers with gas inlet pressures greater than ½ psi (35 mbar)


Standards in north america gas fired water heaters
Standards in North America – Gas-Fired Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • ANSI Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3 – Gas Water Heaters – Volume III-Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings Above 75,000 Btu/Hr, Circulating and Instantaneous

    • Covers all instantaneous (Tankless) designs

    • Used for Certification in both the United States and Canada

    • Does not require ASME Section IV compliance

  • ANSI Z21.10.1/CSA 4.1 - Gas Water Heaters – Volume I-Storage Water Heaters With Input Ratings of 75,000 Btu/Hr or Less

    • Covers Residential Size Storage Tank Type Heaters

    • Used for Certification in both the United States and Canada


Installation code requirements
Installation Code Requirements Water Heaters

  • ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54 – National Fuel Gas Code

    • United States Only

    • Local Codes may be different

    • Used by CSA during review of instructions

  • ASME CSD-1 – Controls and Safety Devices for Boilers

    • Required by many local code authorities

    • Control requirements are different, Specially on boilers with input ratings over 400,000 Btu/Hr (117kW)

    • Many manufacturers offer control packages for boilers being installed in regions where CSD-1 is required by code authority


Installation code requirements1
Installation Code Requirements Water Heaters

  • CAN/CSA B149.1 – Natural Gas and Propane Installation Code

    • Canada Only

    • Local/Provincial Codes may be different

    • Used by CSA during review of instructions

  • CAN/CSA B149.3 – Code for Field Approval of Fuel-Related Components on Appliances and Equipment

    • Used by agencies and code authorities to evaluate unlisted equipment in Canada

    • Testing is not part of code.

    • CSA International does not certify to this code. We provide field evaluation of unlisted equipment only


Installation code requirements2
Installation Code Requirements Water Heaters

  • New York – MEA

    • Required by New York City to sell products

    • CSA International prepares specialized reports

  • California Energy Commission (CEC)

    • Requires special listing of efficiency ratings for products being sold into their state.

    • The minimum efficiency requirements are the same as the federal levels in the United States

    • CSA International is an approved certification laboratory

    • CEC website is: www.energy.ca.gov


Gases used in north america
Gases Used in North America Water Heaters

  • Natural Gas

  • The standards identify natural gas with a nominal heating value of 1075 Btu/cuft (40.1 MJ/m3) and a specific gravity of 0.65. Tests are conducted using local utility supplied gas. Typical heating values may range from 1000 Btu/cuft to 1100 Btu/cuft.

  • Typical Wobbe index values range from 45 to 51 MJ/m3.

  • Additional tests for ignition and burner operation are conducted using Test Gas G Butane-Air or Test Gas H Propane-Air each with a 1400 Btu/cuft (52.2 MJ/m3) heating value.


Gases used in north america1
Gases Used in North America Water Heaters

  • Liquefied Petroleum Gases

  • Testing for compliance with LPG is conducted using Propane HD-5 with a nominal heating value of 2500 Btu/cuft (93.1 MJ/m3)

  • LPG is a general term defined as a mixture of propane, propylene, butanes and butylenes.

  • Propane HD-5 is defined as grade of LPG consisting of minimum of 90% liquid propane and a minimum of 5% propylene

  • Additional tests for ignition and burner operation are conducted using Test Gas D Butane with a nominal heating value of 3200 Btu/cuft (119.2 MJ/m3). Certification on butane is not permitted by the water heater and boiler standards.


Gases used in north america2
Gases Used in North America Water Heaters

  • Heating values used in North America are the gross or higher heating value of the gas corrected to 60 F (15.5 C) and 30 inches Hg (1016 mbar).

  • Tests are conducted with normal inlet gas pressures adjusted the following:

    Natural Gas – 7.0 inches w.c. (17.4 mbar)

    LPG – 11.0 inches w.c. (27.6 mbar)

    Additional tests are conducted at reduced and increased inlet pressures


Efficiency requirements gas boilers
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Boilers Water Heaters

Efficiency requirements for boilers are different for the United States and Canada.

  • United States

    • Boilers with input ratings of 300,000 Btu/Hr (88 kW) or more must comply efficiency requirements in the standard. Hot water boilers are tested to verify a combustion efficiency within 98% of the claimed efficiency of the manufacturer but not less than 80%. Additionally, a thermal efficiency may be conducted at the discretion of the manufacturer.

      • Combustion efficiency is based on a measurement of CO2 and temperatures in the flue exhaust.

      • Thermal efficiency is based a measurement of gas consumption and water flow over a specified period of time.

    • It is anticipated that these requirements will soon be removed from Z21.13/CSA 4.9 due to recent requirements announced by DOE.


Efficiency requirements gas boilers1
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Boilers Water Heaters

  • United States

    • Boilers with input ratings of 300,000 Btu/Hr (88 kW) or more must also comply with DOE regulations in 10CFR 31, Subpart E.

    • This is not a mandatory test requirement to obtain CSA Certification.

    • The test procedure identified in the regulation is the Hydronics Institute (HI) division of GAMA standard BTS-2000.

    • The test conducted is a combustion efficiency test identical to the test required in ANSI Z21.13/CSA 4.9

    • The minimum efficiency required by the regulation is 80%.


Efficiency requirements gas boilers2
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Boilers Water Heaters

  • United States:

    • Boilers with input ratings below 300,000 Btu/Hr (88 kW) do not require testing to the requirements in the Z21.13/CSA 4.9 standard. Certification is provided without any evaluation of efficiency.

    • These models must comply United States of Department of Energy (DOE) 10CFR430. The test is identified in Appendix N to Subpart B of 10CFR430. The specific test protocol is contained in ANSI/ASHRAE standard 103-1993- Method of Testing for Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency of Residential Central Furnaces and Boilers.

    • Minimum federal level for hot water boilers is 80% Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE).


Efficiency requirements gas boilers3
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Boilers Water Heaters

  • United States:

    • Boilers with input ratings under 300,000 Btu/hr (88 kW) must be provided with an EnergyGuide label in accordance with federal rule 16 CFR Part 305. The label displays anticipated operating costs on a yearly basis. The Federal Trade Commission website http://www.ftc.gov contains details of the label requirements.

    • Boilers with input ratings under 300,000 Btu/hr (88 kW) are eligible for Energy Star rating provided that the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) is 85% or greater. Details on energy star are found on their website http://www.energystar.gov.


Efficiency requirements gas boilers4
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Boilers Water Heaters

  • Canada:

    • Boilers with input ratings of 300,000 Btu/Hr (88 kW) or more must comply with the requirements in Z21.13/CSA 4.9 with the same requirements as specified for the United States.

    • Boilers with input ratings less than 300,000 Btu/Hr (88 kW) must comply with CSA P.2 – Testing Method for Measuring Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiencies of Residential Furnaces and Boilers.

      • Minimum Efficiency ratings are established by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Current minimum rating for hot water boilers is 80% Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. Their website is www.nrcan.gc.ca.

      • Compliance with this standard is necessary as part of certification of boilers in Canada.

      • An energyguide label is not required by the Canadian regulations.


Efficiency requirements gas water heaters
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters

Efficiencies of water heaters are treated differently for the United States and Canada.

  • United States: Not required for certification

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings or 200,000 Btu/Hr (58 kW) or less are subject to federal Department of Energy (DOE) Requirements, which are identified in 10CFR430. The test procedures are identified in Appendix E to Subpart B of 10CFR430.

    • Minimum federal levels are expressed as an energy factor, which is the ratio of water consumption and energy consumption over 6 specific water draws. The current minimum level is 0.62 – (0.0019 x rated storage volume in gallons)


Efficiency requirements gas water heaters1
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • United States:

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings under 200,000 Btu/hr (58 kW) must be provided with an EnergyGuide label in accordance with federal rule 16 CFR Part 305. The label displays anticipated operating costs on a yearly basis. The Federal Trade Commission website http://www.ftc.gov contains details of the label requirements.

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings under 200,000 But/Hr (58 kW) are eligible for Energy Star rating provided that the tested energy factor is equal to or greater than 0.82. Details on energy star are found on their website http://www.energystar.gov.


Efficiency requirements gas water heaters2
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • United States:

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings over 200,000 Btu/Hr (58 kW) or designed to deliver hot water at temperatures greater than 180 F (82 C) must meet the requirements outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) under 10 CFR Part 431. The test is a thermal efficiency test. The test procedure is contained in Exhibit G of ANSI Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3. The current minimum federally mandated thermal efficiency is 80%.


Efficiency requirements gas water heaters3
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • Canada

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings greater than 200,000 Btu/Hr must comply with the testing requirements in Exhibit G – Method of Test for Measuring Thermal Efficiency, in ANSI Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3.

      • The minimum thermal efficiency is 80%.

    • Instantaneous water heaters with input ratings of 200,000 Btu/Hr or less must comply with CAN/CSA P.7 – Testing Method for Measuring Energy Loss of Gas-Fired Instantaneous Water Heaters

      • Minimum federal levels are expressed as an energy factor, which is the ratio of water consumption and energy consumption over 6 specific water draws. The current minimum level is 0.62 – (0.0019 x rated storage volume in gallons)

      • Compliance with this standard is necessary as part of certification of instantaneous water heaters in Canada


Efficiency requirements gas water heaters4
Efficiency Requirements – Gas Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • Recently, Natural Resources Canada, NRCan announced changes to the ENERGY STAR program for instantaneous water heaters in Canada. Features of the program include:

    • Program applies to water heaters with input ratings up to 250,000 Btu/Hr. (73 kW)

    • The minimum energy factor needed to qualify for Energy Star rating in Canada is 0.82.

    • The new changes take effect September 1, 2010


Efficiency requirements
Efficiency Requirements Water Heaters

  • For efficiency requirements regulated by the DOE in the United States, the manufacturer must report results to the DOE.

    • For products covered under 10CFR430, (instantaneous water heaters under 200,000 btu/hr and boilers under 300,000 Btu/hr) the manufacturer must submit a compliance report directly to the DOE and will be subjected to continuous testing to confirm the rating. The details of this are in Subpart F – Certification and Enforcement to 10CFR430. 

    • Most manufacturers will arrange for the testing through the Hydronics Institute of GAMA.  The results are published in their directory.  Their website is: www.gamanet.org

  • The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) website is http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html


Key evaluations in north american standards
Key Evaluations in North American Standards Water Heaters

  • Pressure Vessel Requirements – Boilers (ASME)

  • Sanitation issues for hot water heaters

  • Venting (Flue System)

  • Gas Controls

  • Wiring/electrical components

  • Instructions/Markings

    • French for Canada

  • High altitude

  • NOx

  • Manufacturing And Production Test Plans


Pressure vessel requirements boilers
Pressure Vessel Requirements - Boilers Water Heaters

  • For boilers being certified for the United States, compliance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV (Heating Boilers) is required.

    • CSA International cannot provide this approval. ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) must be contacted for approval requirements (www.asme.org)

    • Evidence of compliance with ASME Section IV must be provided before certification of a boiler can be provided. The required ASME mark is the “H” stamp.

    • Testing of the boiler can be conducted concurrently with the ASME process of obtaining the ASME certification.


Pressure vessel requirements boilers1
Pressure Vessel Requirements - Boilers Water Heaters

  • For boilers being certified for use in Canada, compliance with CSA B51 – Boiler, Pressure vessel, and Pressure Piping code is required.

    • Manufacturers in countries other than Canada or the United States must either obtain the ASME Section IV certification or provide documentation to any of the 13 Provincial regulatory authorities that the production of the pressure vessel is in accordance ASME Section IV.

    • The regulatory authority will issue a Canadian Registration Number (CRN), which is unique to the Province issuing the CRN. This can be used throughout Canada.

    • The nameplate of the pressure vessel must contain both the ASME mark along with the CRN number.


Pressure vessels water heaters
Pressure Vessels – Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • Pressure vessels of water heaters are not required to obtain ASME certification or a CRN number in Canada.

  • Storage vessels and water carrying parts may, at the option of the manufacturer, have certification through ASME. If not, a hydrostatic pressure test (Section 2.27) at pressures of 2 times the rated working pressure but not less than 300 psi (20.7 bar) must be conducted as part of certification.


Sanitation concerns water heaters
Sanitation Concerns – Water Heaters Water Heaters

  • Manufacturers are required to supply evidence to the certifying agency that materials in contact with potable (drinking) water are suitable for food contact surfaces. This evidence may include:

    • Verification that the design is compliant with sanitation standards including NSF/ANSI 5 covering water heaters.

    • Sanitation approvals to standards outside of North America

    • A list of materials in contact with water along with their composition that can be used to evaluate suitability against NSF standards 51 and 61.

    • Report on toxicity or equivalent from a suitable chemical laboratory


Venting issues
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Venting requirements on boilers is based on Category rating of appliance. This will also be required on water heaters in the near future.

  • Category determination is based on pressures, temperatures in a test vent. As a result of this test, the following categories are determined:

    • Category I – Negative Vent Pressure/Non-condensing

    • Category II – Negative Vent Pressure/Condensing

    • Category III - Positive Vent Pressure/Non-condensing

    • Category IV - Positive Vent Pressure/Condensing


Venting issues1
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Category I boilers typically vented vertically and are equipped with draft hoods

  • Category II and IV boilers are condensing type

    • Category IV typically are vented with plastic pipe

    • Category II and IV boilers must be designed to dispose of condensate

  • Category III boilers typically vented horizontally using listed metallic vent systems

  • Direct vent boilers and outdoor installation boilers do not have a category.


Venting issues2
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Vent systems of Category II, III, IV and direct vent appliances can be provided with the appliance or the manufacturer can specify that the appliance be tested with a commercially available vent system. Typical vents available in North America include:

    • Plastic – PVC, CPVC, ABS – used on Category IV Condensing models

    • Listed metallic vent systems – used on Category III Models

  • The manufacturer must specify both the minimum and maximum vent and/or air intake pipe lengths when submitting a boiler or water heater for test that is intended to be vented horizontally.


Venting issues3
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Evaluation of vent systems used on Category II, III, IV and direct vent appliances is based on the follow criteria:

    • If the vent system is listed and the temperatures in the vent during test do not exceed temperature ratings for the vent, it is acceptable. The venting System Standards in North America are:

      • UL 1738 – Venting Systems for Gas Burning Appliances - Category II, III and IV (United States)

      • ULC S636 – Standard for Type BH Gas Venting Systems (Canada)


Venting issues4
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Plastic vent systems (PVC,CPVC,ABS, etc.) are evaluated as follows:

    • For Canadian approval, plastic vent systems must be approved to Canadian Venting system standard, ULC S636. This is required by Canadian Installation code, CSA B149.1.

    • Temperatures are recorded on the vent material during operation of the water heater or boiler. Temperature limits on typical North America plastic material is as follows:

      • PVC – 158 F (70 C)

      • CPVC – 210 F (100 C)

      • ABS – 180 F (82 C)


Venting issues5
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • For products being certified for the United States only:

    • For unlisted plastic materials and materials other than PVC, ABS, CPVC, the water heater and boiler standards are being revised to require that the material be evaluated for corrosion resistance to condensate requirement to the requirements in the venting system standards.

    • Consideration for approval of the vent system to standards outside of the United States as a means of accepting the vent can be given.


Venting issues6
Venting Issues Water Heaters

  • Metallic Vent Systems are evaluated as follows:

    • Listed vent systems are accepted if the temperatures of the vent gases recorded during appliance testing are less than the rated temperature of the listed system.

    • For unlisted metallic vent systems, the water heater and boiler standards are being revised to require that the material be evaluated for corrosion resistance to condensate requirement in the venting system standards.

    • Consideration for approval of the vent system to standards outside of the United States as a means of accepting the vent can be given.


Controls
Controls Water Heaters

  • Controls used on water heaters and boilers are accepted on the following basis:

    • Controls are certified to the appropriate controls standards in North America

    • Unlisted Controls are accepted in application on the basis of:

      • Satisfactory testing of the control to the safety test requirements in the applicable North American Control standard

      • The appliance manufacturer must assume responsibility for the production quality control requirements of the control either by conducting the required production line tests or by setting up a system with the control manufacturer to validate the production tests conducted by the controls manufacturer.

      • CSA International reserves the right to inspect the production facility of the controls manufacturer.


Controls1
Controls Water Heaters

  • North American Control Standards referenced in the water heater and boilers standards include:

    • Ignition Systems/burner controls – ANSI Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372

    • *Automatic Gas Valves/Safety Shutoff Valves – ANSI Z21.21/CSA6.5

    • *Manual Gas Valves – ANSI Z21.15/CSA 9.1

    • *Thermostats – ANSI Z21.23, CSA C22.2 No. 24 or UL 873

    • Temperature Limits

      • Limits typically certified to ANSI/UL 353 (US) and CSA C22.2 No. 24 (Canada)


Controls2
controls Water Heaters

  • Low Water Cutoff Devices – ANSI/UL 353 (US) and CSA C22.2 No. 24 (Canada) (Boilers only)

  • *Gas Regulators – ANSI Z21.18/CSA 6.3

  • Relief Valves

    • Water Heaters – ANSI Z21.22/CSA 4.4

    • Boilers - ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV (Heating Boilers) and CSA B51 – Boiler, Pressure vessel, and Pressure Piping code

  • * - May be combined in one control body listed to ANSI Z21.78/CSA 6.20 – Combination Controls


Controls special considerations
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • Programmable Controls

    • CSA International is working with partners to combine efforts to minimize testing and evaluation of software related controls.

    • The water heater and boilers standards require compliance with various component standards which have software requirements imbedded in them.

    • The gas appliance standards in North America are discussing upgrades to address operating features on appliances that are not addressed in control standards. Operations that were previously controlled by mechanical devices are more often being replaced by electronic signals from devices being analyzed by a programmable type control. These operations are currently being evaluated for EN approval.


Controls special considerations1
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • CSA International evaluation of programmable controls is based on the following considerations:

    • Recently approved standard ANSI Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372-2007- Automatic Electrical Controls for Household and Similar Use Part 2: Particular Requirements for Automatic Burner Ignition Systems and Components, has adapted IEC 60730-2-5 with the major exception that software evaluation is conducted using ANSI/UL 1998.

    • ANSI/UL 1998 adapted the contents of Annex H in IEC 60730-2-5

    • Designs complying with ANSI Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372-2007 have satisfied software evaluation requirements. However, compliance with this standard is not required until 2012.


Controls special considerations2
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • Controls not evaluated to the new ignitions system standard Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372-2007, must be evaluated to the following standards:

    • In the United States the 2005 edition of ANSI Z21.20 is used. This standard specifies software evaluation using UL 1998.

    • Controls for Canada are tested to old edition of CSA C22.2 No. 199, which did not contain software coverage. Because of this CSA International as published an internal standard for software evaluation, CSA TIL H18A for products being certified for Canada.

    • TIL H18A incorporates software requirements contained in ANSI Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372-2007. The TIL was developed to bridge the gap until the 2012 effective date for ANSI Z21.20/CSA C22.2 No. 199/UL 372-2007. It had an effective date of August 2008.


Controls special considerations3
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • CSA also uses CSA C22.2 No. 0.8 – Safety Functions Incorporating Electronic Technology when evaluating features of limit controls to ANSI/UL 353. This evaluation includes additional software evaluation using UL 1998.


Controls special considerations4
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • Designs complying with EN 298 that have been evaluated by a CSA Partner, must be evaluated as follows for compliance with the North America standards.

    • Construction of the device must be compared to the North American Standard

    • A portion of the performance cycling testing must be conducted. The balance of the testing is extended from evaluations conducted for the EN approval of the control

  • Currently, CSA International will accept the software evaluation conducted by qualified CSA Partners


Controls special considerations5
Controls – Special Considerations Water Heaters

  • Relief Valve Requirements

    • Water Heaters

      • Relief valve is not required to be supplied by the water heater manufacturer. Instructions must be provided on the proper installation of the relief valve. Instantaneous type water heaters only are required to be provided with pressure relief valves, not pressure and temperature relief valves.

    • Boilers

      • Pressure relief valves compliant with the Pressure vessel codes are required on hot water boilers.

  • Low Water Cutoffs

    • Low water cutoff devices to sense low water level in a boiler are required on steam boilers but not on hot water boilers. However, installation codes and ASME CSD-1 require that these devices be provided at installation of a boiler.


Controls electrical
Controls – Electrical Water Heaters

  • Electrical Evaluation:

    • United States – Electrical requirements are contained in the water heater and boiler standards.

    • Canada – The electrical requirements are contained in CAN/CSA C22.2 No.3, Electrical Features of Fuel-Burning Equipment.

    • Major differences in the two requirements include:

      • Definition of voltage in the Canadian standard is different than that defined in water heater and boiler standards.

      • The nominal supply voltage of a safety control circuit shall not exceed 120 V.


Controls electrical1
Controls – Electrical Water Heaters

  • Electrical codes, NEC and CEC are not used in the evaluation. These codes exclude listed products and are typically used for installation purposes only.

    • National Electrical Code – NFPA 70 – (United States)

    • Canadian Electrical Code – CSA C22.1 (Canada)

  • Certification to the water heater and boiler standards are for ordinary locations only. Hazardous locations approval is not addressed in these standards.


Controls electrical2
Controls – Electrical Water Heaters

  • Electrical Controls:

    • Motors, switches, lamp holders, etc, are accepted on the basis of:

      • Listing to North American standards

      • Review of application. Is control in a safety circuit? Is it a Class 2 circuit? Is there a listed safety device in the circuit?

      • It may be necessary to conduct limited testing on electrical components as part of their acceptance.

    • Wiring

      • Line voltage (120 VAC, 60 Hz) and low voltage safety circuit wiring 30 VAC or less) must be 18 AWG (0.82 mm2)

      • Low voltage, non-safety circuit wiring that is not 18 AWG may be accepted on the basis that it is in a non-safety circuit, is suitable for the electrical load and is adequately supported/protected from damage.


Instructions and markings
Instructions and Markings Water Heaters

  • Quoted Text Requirements

    • Instruction manual and marking requirements within the standards that are in quotes must have the same wording in manufacturers instructions and markings.

  • Marking material tests

    • The standards require that marking materials (paper, adhesive, ink) be tested in accordance with tests in the standards or be listed markings systems to ANSI/UL 569 – Marking and labeling Systems or CSA C 22.2 No. 0.15 - Standard for Adhesive Labels.

  • French in Canada

    • Markings and instructions must be translated for boilers and water heaters being certified for Canada. The translated material must be provided before CSA certification in Canada can be granted.


High altitude requirements
High Altitude Requirements Water Heaters

  • Normal altitude is considered anything up to and including 2000 ft (610 m). Above this is considered high altitude.

  • High altitude - United States

    • United States – Installations over 2000 ft. are covered by the National Fuel Gas code, ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54. The code requires that products be derated by 4% per 1000 ft. related back to sea level. (Installation at 3000 ft are derated 12%)

    • It is not necessary for the manufacturer to address high altitude concerns in the United States as part of certification to the water heater and boiler standards.


High altitude requirements1
High Altitude Requirements Water Heaters

  • High Altitude – Canada

    • High Altitude must comply with the applicable requirements of CAN/CCA 2.17, Standard for Gas-Fired Appliances for Use at High Altitudes.

    • The standard covers altitudes up to 4,500 ft (1372 m)

    • Many manufacturers declare a derate from normal altitude (2000 ft) to 4500 ft.

    • Manufacturers have the option of obtaining certification for altitudes only up to 2000 ft (610 m)

    • Over 4500 ft, installations in Canada are covered by the installation code, CSA B149.1 The derate requirement is the same as in the United States.

    • Compliance with the CAN/CGA 2.17 standard is required for certification of boilers and water heaters in Canada.


High altitude requirements2
High Altitude Requirements Water Heaters

  • CSA offers specialized testing at high altitude locations up to approximately 10,000 ft (3048 m).

  • This testing will assist manufacturers looking to establish specific operation of appliances at altitude different than specified in the installation codes.

    • Manufacturers with products that do not need to be derated using the requirements specified in the installation codes (4% per 1000 ft)

    • Typically the installation instructions are modified to include the specific requirements for operation of a particular appliance at various high altitudes

    • Local installers and code inspectors will use these instructions when reviewing a particular installation.


Nox requirements
NOx Requirements Water Heaters

  • Measurement of NOx is not required by the water heater and boiler standards in North America. Compliance with separate standards is required to sell the appliance into certain locations, most notably California. The agency controlling the program is the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).

  • Their website is www.aqmd.gov/


Nox requirements1
NOx Requirements Water Heaters

  • The standard used by the SCAQMD is Rule 1146.2 – Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen from Large Water heaters and Small Boilers and Process Heater

    • Products covered by the Rule include:

      • TYPE 1 UNIT - any water heater, boiler or process heater with a rated heat input less than or equal to 400,000 BTU per hour (117 kW) excluding tank type water heaters.

      • TYPE 2 UNIT - any water heater, boiler or process heater with a rated heat input greater than 400,000 BTU per hour up to and including 2,000,000 BTU per hour. (732 kW)


Nox requirements2
NOx Requirements Water Heaters

  • Currently, emissions on Type 2 units is must be less than or equal to 30 ppm of NOx emissions (at 3% O2, dry)

  • After January 1, 2010, Type 2 unit are limited to a NOx emission level of less than 14 nanograms of NOx (calculated as NO2) per joule of heat output or less than or equal to 20 ppm of NOx emissions (at 3% O2, dry).


Nox requirements3
NOx Requirements Water Heaters

  • Currently, emissions on Type 1 units must be less than or equal to 40 nanograms of NOx calculated as NO2) per joule (93 lb per billion Btu) of heat output or 55 ppm NOx emissions (at 3% O2, dry)

  • After January 1, 2012, Type 1 unit NOx emission level are reduced 14 nanograms of NOx (calculated as NO2) per joule of heat output or less than or equal to 20 ppm of NOx emissions (at 3% O2, dry).


Nox requirements4
NOx Requirements Water Heaters

  • NOx Emmisions are the sum of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide in the flue gas, collectively expressed as nitrogen dioxide.

  • Report from an approved testing laboratory, such as CSA International, detailing the results of the testing to the 1146.2 Rule must be provided to the SQAQMD as evidence of compliance.


Manufacturing and production tests
Manufacturing and Production Tests Water Heaters

  • Both the water heater and boiler standards require that the manufacturer submit a plan to the certifying agency outlining the quality control procedures used in the production of the listed appliance. This plan must address, at a minimum, the following items:

    • Procedures for receiving both raw materials (steel, etc) and purchased parts (burners, valves, etc.). These procedures must detail the level of inspection conducted by the manufacturer

    • Procedures for the conduct of the operation of safety controls on each model produced.

    • Procedures on the inspection of the heat exchanger and pressure vessels


Manufacturing and production tests1
Manufacturing and Production Tests Water Heaters

  • Procedures on the dielectric withstand testing of 100% of production.

  • Procedures on verifying burner operation on 100% of production.

  • Procedures for leak testing gas carrying portions of 100% of production

  • In addition to the verification tests on all production, the manufacturer is also required to provide procedures detailing method of conducting the following tests:

    • Burner Operating Characteristics (flashback)

    • Proper operation of the ignition system – Verify shutdown of flame safety system

    • Combustion Tests – CO and CO2 emissions

    • Flame Rollout Safety Means – Boilers only

    • Hot Water Limit Test – Boilers only


Manufacturing and production tests2
Manufacturing and Production Tests Water Heaters

  • With regards to these tests, the manufacturer must provide the following:

    • The frequency of these tests. How often are samples taken from production line and tested

    • The procedures for conducting the tests. At a minimum, testing must be conducted in a “as produced” condition

    • Forms used to record the data

    • Test equipment used to conduct the tests

  • The plan is reviewed prior to completion of certification.

  • The plan is used by CSA inspectors during the periodic inspection of production


Combination water heaters boilers
Combination Water Heaters/Boilers Water Heaters

  • Coverage in the water heater standard is being developed to handle combination appliances.

    • Combination appliances cannot be used for space heating only

    • If appliance has separate space heating and water heating circuits:

      • Appliance must be marked with the working pressure of both the space heating and potable water heating circuits

      • The space heating circuit must comply with hydrostatic pressure test of 2 times working pressure of space heating circuit but not less than 30 psi (2 bar)

    • There are no efficiency requirements established for combination appliances. Combination appliances certified as a water heater must comply with the efficiency requirements as a water heater.


Combination water heaters boilers1
Combination Water Heaters/Boilers Water Heaters

  • A combination appliance can only be classified as a water heater if the primary heat exchanger directly heats potable water. Proposed definition is as follows:

    • Combination Water / Space Heater. A water heater that heats potable water directly within the appliance, and may be connected to provide space heating either directly or indirectly for distributing heated fluid to either a fan coil or similar appliance for space heating purposes. The design is such that the heating fluid temperature cannot exceed 210 F (99 C) under any circumstances during normal operation of the water heater.


Combination water heaters boilers2

Combination water heater/boiler Water Heaters

Secondary Heat Exchanger for potable water

Primary Heat Exchanger w/burner

Space Heating water inlet and outlet

Potable water inlet and outlet

Combination Water Heaters/Boilers

  • The following sketch depicts an appliance that must be classified as a boiler since the primary heat exchanger is intended for space heating circuit only


Combination water heaters boilers3
Combination Water Heaters/Boilers Water Heaters

  • A combinationappliance that indirectly heats potable water cannot be classified as a water heater. It must be a boiler and meet the ASME pressure vessel requirements.

  • There has been no coverage proposed in the Z21.13/CSA 4.9 boiler standard for combination appliances.


Combination water heaters boilers4
Combination Water Heaters/Boilers Water Heaters

  • A combination appliance that is being certified to the boiler standard must have the potable (Sanitary) water circuit evaluated to portions of the water heater standard. This evaluation includes:

    • Materials must be suitable for sanitary purposes

    • The design must limit the outlet water temperature from the sanitary circuit to no more than 210 F (99 C)

    • During normal operation, the outlet water temperature shall not exceed 200 F

    • The sanitary circuit complies with a hydrostatic pressure 2 times the working pressure of the circuit

    • The required wording in the installation instructions from the water heater standard regarding chemical treatment of boiler circuit water must be included (Section 1.30.5 of Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3)

    • Pressure relief valve is needed on sanitary circuit


Questions
QUESTIONS Water Heaters

  • Email address is:

    • john.gorman@csa-international.org