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Weight, Body Composition, and Health

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  1. Weight, Body Composition, and Health Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight

  2. Weight and Health • Goal is to determine if an individual is: • Underweight • Health risks • Healthy weight • Overweight • Health risks if overweight and overfat • Huge health issue in US (see page 280)

  3. Key: No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% _ >25% _ Increasing Prevalence of Obesity (BMI >30) among U.S. Adults 1991: Only four states had obesity rates greater than 15 percent. 1996: Over half of the states had obesity rates greater than 15 percent. 2001: Only one state had an obesity rate below 15 percent, most had obesity rates greater than 20 percent and one had an obesity rate greater than 25 percent.

  4. Obesity Prevalence - 2004 • 9 states > 25% population obese

  5. Evaluating Weight/Health Status • Compare weight to standard height-weight tables • Tables are of limited value and use

  6. Evaluating Weight/Health Status • Body Mass Index (BMI) • Preferred measure for evaluating weight • Based on significant amount of research

  7. BMI

  8. BMI Figures • Men Women • 19.8 18.8 • 21.1 19.3 • 22.2 20.9 • 23.6 23.1 • 25.8 26.2 • 28.1 29.9 • 31.5 34.3 • 35.2 38.6 • 41.5 45.4

  9. * Increased health risks, see pg 262/263

  10. Health Risks and Weight

  11. BMI • BMI is not a good measure for evaluating a body builder/serious athlete’s weight/health • Low end is an appropriate measure of being underweight for all

  12. BMI • Calculating BMI BMI = weight in pounds x 703 (height, inches)2

  13. BMI • Calculating the weight associated with a desired BMI: Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2 703

  14. Calculating BMI BMI = weight in pounds x 703 (height, inches)2 Weight, lbs = desired BMI x (height, inches)2 703

  15. BMI Figures • Men Women • 19.8 18.8 • 21.1 19.3 • 22.2 20.9 • 23.6 23.1 • 25.8 26.2 • 28.1 29.9 • 31.5 34.3 • 35.2 38.6 • 41.5 45.4

  16. BMI

  17. Body Fat • Need enough body fat to meet basic needs, but not so much as to increase health risks

  18. Body Fat • Essential Body Fat: • Males: 3% body fat • Females: 12% body fat, 20% for reproductive health (menstruation and fertility) • The latter value has recently come into question

  19. % Body Fat and Health • Health risks increase when: • Males: % body fat > 22 – 25 % • Females: % body fat > 32 – 35 % • Higher number is for those 40 and over.

  20. Measuring % Body Fat % body fat is difficult to measure accurately • Common methods for measuring: • Fat fold measures with calipers • Bioelectric impedance • Underwater weighing • MRI

  21. Distribution of Body Fat Matters • Central Obesity (apple shape) • Fat stored around the organs of the abdomen • Associated with increased risk of: • Heart disease • Stroke • Hypertension • Some cancers

  22. Distribution of Body Fat • More on central obesity • More common in men and post-menopausal women • Associated with smoking • Abdominal fat is likely to go directly to the liver and be used to make VLDL  LDL

  23. Distribution of Body Fat • Lower-Body Obesity (pear shape) • Fat stores are concentrated around the hips and thighs • Doesn’t raise health risks as much as central obesity. • See most often in women during reproductive years

  24. Waist Circumference • Health risks increase when waist circumference is: • Greater than 40” in men • Greater than 35” in women • Risk is even greater if BMI is also > 24.9

  25. Health Risks and BMI

  26. Health Risks and Weight • Health risks in each category increase if: • Waist is > 40” men, > 35” women • Smoke • Physically inactive • High blood glucose • High LDL levels or low HDL levels • Family history of heart disease, stroke, hypertension

  27. What are the Health Issues? • Health issues associated with being overweight or obese: • Type II diabetes • Hypertension • High cholesterol • Heart disease

  28. Health Issues • Health issues continued • Gall bladder disease • Osteoarthritis • Respiratory problems • Hernias • Varicose veins • Flat feet • Complications during surgery and pregnancy

  29. Health Issues - Underweight • Increased risk of infection and illness • Tired and weak (may be anemic) • Amenorrhea (periods stop) • Reduced fertility • Complications during surgery • Poor growth and development in kids

  30. Summary Methods for Evaluating Weight/Health Status • Compare weight to standard tables (not useful) • Calculate BMI • Determine % body fat • Evaluate fat distribution • Measure waist circumference • Consider other risk factors

  31. Who should lose weight? • For people who are overweight or obese and have 2 or more risk factors weight loss is recommended • even a small weight loss (10% of body weight) will significantly decrease health risks

  32. Who should maintain their weight? • Individuals with a healthy BMI should maintain their current weight. • Individuals who are overweight, do not have a high waist circumference, and have less than 2 risk factors should prevent further weight gain

  33. Who should gain weight? • Individuals who are have a BMI of less than ______ should gain weight.

  34. Strategies for Weight Loss • In general need to decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity • Generally need both for long-term weight loss

  35. Strategies for Weight Loss • Set reasonable goals • 1-2 pounds per week • Loss of 10% of body weight • May set interim goals if a large amount of weight loss is desired

  36. Strategies for Weight Loss • To lose 1 pound per week you need to reduce caloric intake (or increase caloric output) by: • 500 kcal per day = 3500 kcal/week

  37. Strategies for Weight Loss • Avoid fad diets and weight loss supplements • Avoid very low calorie diets • Never less than 1200 kcal per day • Why??

  38. Strategies for Weight Loss • Increase level of physical activity • 30-45 minutes, 3-5 days a week • Add weight bearing exercise to build muscle • Why?

  39. Adding Physical Activity

  40. Strategies for Weight Loss • Reduce portion size • Increase intake of fiber (why?) • More fruits and veggies • More whole grain products • Limit empty calories • Soda, alcohol, candy…..

  41. Strategies for Weight Loss • Drink plenty of water • Eat a salad before dinner • Low calorie dressing • Buy/make fixed size portions • Avoid buffets and family style serving • Reduce fat content of foods w.o increasing portion size

  42. Strategies for Weight Loss • Avoid starving all day…..leads to binging • Others????

  43. Extreme Measures • Extreme weight loss measures may be called in cases of severe obesity (BMI >40) • When health issues of weight are greater than the health issues associated with the treatment

  44. Extreme Measures • Treatment is usually: • Surgery to drastically reduce stomach size and to bypass some of the SI • Long-term success depends upon compliance with dietary restrictions • Lifetime medical supervision is needed • At high risk of many vitamin and mineral deficiencies • Medications

  45. Weight Gain • Goal is to add lean body mass (as well as body fat if extremely underweight) • Exercise is an important component of weight gain • Weight gain can be just as challenging as weight loss!

  46. Strategies for Weight Gain • Chose energy dense foods • May be higher fat choices • Someone who is seriously underweight can afford a little more fat • Examples: • 2% milk vs. skim milk • Peanut butter on anything • Salmon vs. haddock

  47. Strategies for Weight Gain • Eat regular meals • Do not call a “non-meal” a meal • Lettuce or carrots or an apple are not lunch • Leave salad for last • Increase portion size • Extra meat or cheese on sandwich • Larger bowl of cereal, add a banana

  48. Strategies for Weight Gain • Snack between meals, but not too close to meals! • Chose nutritionally /calorie densesnacks • Peanut butter on apple or crackers • Bowl of cereal with milk • Trail mix (seeds, nuts, raisins….) • Slimfast or instant breakfast • Drink caloric beverages • Milk, juice …..