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Rheumatic Heart Diseases. Ahmad Osailan. Fast review of the heart . Valves of the heart . Function- prevent blood from flowing backwards Responds to changes in pressure Two types of valves in heart Atrioventricular valves (AV) Semi-lunar valves. What is Rheumatic Heart Disease.

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valves of the heart
Valves of the heart
  • Function- prevent blood from flowing backwards
  • Responds to changes in pressure
  • Two types of valves in heart
  • Atrioventricular valves (AV)
  • Semi-lunar valves
what is rheumatic heart disease
What is Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • is a rare form of heart disease that typically impacts children.  It is caused by having rheumatic fever, which itself is a complication from the strep throat bacteria. 
  • The inflammation from rheumatic fever causes the heart valves to become weaker and not push through the blood as they should, thus creating heart disease.
what is rheumatic fever
What is Rheumatic Fever
  • Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that is developed when the streptococcal bacteria is not treated. 
  • This bacteria is the cause of strep throat and fever.  While adults can get Rheumatic fever, it is typically a children’s illness, especially for children between the ages of 5 – 16

Streptoccocus affects different area of the heart:

  • Endocardium Endocarditis
  • Myocardium  Myocarditis
  • Pericardium  Pericarditis
  • Resulting in:
  • Distortion and scaring of the valves causing stenosis or widening
  • Endocardium is the most affected one
symptoms of rheumatic heart disease
Symptoms of Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Fever
  • Swollen and red joints
  • Murmur
  • Breathlessness (dyspnea)
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Fainting attacks
  • Palpitations
types of valve diseases
Types of Valve Diseases
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Mitral Regurgitation
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Aortic regurgitation
  • Tricuspid valve is affected infrequently
    • Tricuspid stenosis – causes Rt HF
    • Tricuspid regurgitation –causes venous overload
mitral stenosis
Mitral Stenosis
  • Is a thickening of Valve by fibrosis or calcification.
  • What happen to the valve?
  • Valve leaflets fuse and become stiff and the cordaetendineae contract
what happen after mitral stenosis
What happen after mitral stenosis
  • These narrows the opening and prevents normal blood flow from the LA to the LV
  • LA pressure increases left atrium dilates, Pulmonary Artery Pressure increasesthe RV hypertrophies.
  • Pulmonary congestion and right sided heart failure occurs.
objective findings of mitral stenosis
Objective findings of mitral stenosis
  • Pulse may be normal to A-Fib
  • Apical diastolic murmur is heard
mitral regurgitation
Mitral Regurgitation
  • caused by papillary muscle rupture form congenital, infective endocarditis.
  • Abnormality prevents the valve from closing
  • Blood flows back into the right atrium during systole
  • During diastole the regurg output flows into the LV with the normal blood flow and increases the volume into the LV
aortic stenosis
Aortic Stenosis
  • Valve becomes stiff and fibrotic, impeding blood flow with LV contraction
  • Results in LV hypertrophy, increased O2 demands, and pulmonary congestion
  • Caused by – rheumatic fever, congenital, arthrosclerosis
  • Complications – right sided heart failure, pulmonary edema, and A-fib.
  • History and physical findings
  • EKG
  • Chest x-ray
  • Cardiac cath
  • Echocardiogram
surgical management of valve disease
Surgical Management of Valve Disease
  • Most of the valve disease of the heart are treated surgically by
  • There are 2 types of Valve Replacement
  • 1- Mechanical Valve
  • 2- Tissue Valve
difference between mechanical v and tissue v
Difference between Mechanical V and Tissue V
  • Artificial Valves tissue Valves
  • Life expectancy (20) 10-15 years, Limited durability
  • High Susceptibility of Blood clot Less likely for clotting
  • Patient on Antiplatelet patient is on immune supressant
rehabilitation for post valve replacement
Rehabilitation for Post valve replacement
  • Will be discussed in Cardiac rehabilitation lecture.