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Bellwork . What is genetics? The study of heredity What is heredity? The study of how traits are passed on from parent(s) to offspring. Chapter 10: Genetics (scientific study of heredity). 10.1 and 10.2: Work of Gregor Mendel. Gregor Mendel. His occupations: monk, gardener, teacher

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bellwork

Bellwork

What is genetics?

The study of heredity

What is heredity?

The study of how traits are passed on from parent(s) to offspring

chapter 10 genetics scientific study of heredity

Chapter 10: Genetics (scientific study of heredity)

10.1 and 10.2: Work of Gregor Mendel

gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • His occupations: monk, gardener, teacher
  • His nickname: Father of Genetics
gregor mendel4
Gregor Mendel
  • What was the purpose for Mendel’s studies? To understand the method of

heredity

  • What organism did he work with? Pea plants
pea plants
Pea Plants
  • Anatomy of Pea Plant
    • Female Reproductive organ: pistil
    • Male Reproductive organ: stamen (pollen)
  • How are new seeds created? Stamen (pollen) fertilize the pistil
  • True-breeding (purebred) organisms: they can produce offspring that are identical to themselves
  • Self-pollination vs. Cross pollination
mendel s experiments
Mendel’s Experiments
  • How did he prevent self-pollination from occurring? He removed the pistil from one plant and the stamen from the other.
what 7 traits did mendel study
What 7 traits did Mendel study?
  • Seed Shape
  • Seed Color
  • Seed Coat
  • Pod Shape
  • Pod Color
  • Flower Position
  • Plant Height
slide8

Figure 11-3 Mendel’s Seven F1 Crosses on Pea Plants

Each gene comes in two different forms called alleles.

Seed Shape

Seed Color

Seed Coat

Color

Pod

Shape

Pod Color

Flower Position

Plant Height

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

Wrinkled

Green

White

Constricted

Yellow

Terminal

Short

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

Go to Section:

slide9

Seed color: yellow and green

  • Yellow is dominant Y
  • Green is recessive y
slide10

Alleles: different forms of a gene

*Organisms have two different alleles for each trait

Why?

Dominant alleles: capital letter

Recessive alleles: lowercase letters.

Example: Gene for plant height (t)

Dominant form: T (tall)

Recessive form :t (short)

TT tt Tt

genes
Genes
  • Genotype: genetic makeup; what is on your DNA
    • Consists of 2 alleles Tt
  • Phenotype: physical characteristics

“Genotype and environment determines your phenotype”

mendel s first experiment
Mendel’s First Experiment
  • Mendel crossed plants with different forms of the same trait

Example: He crossed true-breeding yellow pod plant and true-breeding green pod plant.

  • Original plants that mated: P (parental) generation.
  • Offspring:F1(filial) generation.
  • RESULT: All offspring were green
slide13
The Result of the Cross:
    • The offspring of parents with different traits are called hybrids.
    • The offspring showed the trait of only one of the parents. Why?
  • MENDEL’S CONCLUSIONS:

1. Genes are inherited.

slide14
2. Principle of Dominance:

“Some alleles are dominant, some alleles are recessive”

    • In order to show a dominant form of a trait you need to have at least one dominant allele.
    • In order to show a recessive form of a trait you need to have two recessive alleles.

Plant Height

TT Tt tt

  • T-tall
  • t-short
mendel s 2 nd experiment
Mendel’s 2nd Experiment
  • He allowed the F1 offspring to self-pollinate, to produce a F2 generation of plants.
slide16

Results: ¾ green plants

¼ yellow plants.

slide17
Mendel’s conclusions:

Law of Segregation: During the formation of gametes (meiosis), the paired alleles are separated from each other. Each gamete carries only a single allele from the original pair. They randomly unite at fertilization.

For each trait, the offspring inherit one allele from each parent.

Example: True-breeding green pod plants GG

True-breeding yellow pod plants gg

F1 Offspring were Gg (hybrids)