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The Circulatory System. Chapter 15. The Cardiorespiratory System. Includes function of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchange, between the blood and atmosphere. Heart pumps blood through the body through pathways (arteries, veins, and capillaries)

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the cardiorespiratory system
The Cardiorespiratory System
  • Includes function of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchange, between the blood and atmosphere.
    • Heart pumps blood through the body through pathways (arteries, veins, and capillaries)
      • Blood is enriched with oxygen when it passes through the lungs
      • As oxygen enters the bloodstream, carbon dioxide leaves it (respiration)
the circulatory system1
The Circulatory System
  • Course taken by blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins & back to heart
  • Uses blood to transport dissolved materials throughout body
    • Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste
  • Picks up waste products of cell metabolism & takes to lungs and kidneys (to be expelled from body)
the heart
The Heart
  • Two major circulations
    • Each has its own pump
    • Both pumps are incorporated into the heart
  • Location
    • Middle of chest, behind sternum, within ribcage
    • Pericardial cavity
    • Above diaphragm
  • Structure
    • Primarily a shell with four chambers inside
blood flow
Blood Flow
  • Two sides of heart are anatomically and functionally separate pumping units
    • Right side pumps blood through pulmonary circulation
    • Left side pumps blood through systemic circulation
heart facts
Heart Facts
  • Adult human heart approx size of closed fist
  • About 5 inches long and 3 ½ inches wide
  • Weighs just less than 1 pound
  • Beats about 100,000 times each day
  • Pump about 8,000 gallons of blood through 12,000 miles of vessels each day
  • Contracts and relaxes 70-80 bpm
structure of heart
Structure of Heart
  • Four cavities
    • Atria
      • Form curved top of heart
    • Ventricles
      • Meet at bottom of heart to form pointed base
      • Points toward left side of chest
structure of heart1
Structure of Heart

Left Side

Right Side

  • One ventricle
  • One atrium
  • Mitral valve—connects left atrium to left ventricle
  • One ventricle
  • One atrium
  • Tricuspid valve—connects right atrium to right ventricle
  • Wall, septum, separates right and left sides


    • heart’s main artery
    • carries blood away from heart to body’s cells
  • Pulmonary artery
    • artery that connects heart to lungs
  • Two largest veins:
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
  • As heart contracts, it pushes blood though chambers and into the vessels
  • Nerves connected to the heart regulate the speed of contractions
  • Greater the activity, faster the heart will pump; faster heart pumps, more oxygen and nutrient are carried throughout body
heart muscle
Heart Muscle
  • Pericardium
  • Epicardium
  • Myocardium
  • Endocardium
  • Only tissue that flows throughout body
  • Carries oxygen & nutrients to all parts of body and transports waste products back to lungs, kidneys, and liver for disposal
  • Essential part of immune system
  • Crucial for fluid and temperature balance
  • Hydraulic fluid for certain functions
  • Highway for hormonal messages
  • Composed of plasma and billions of cells
  • The yellowish, liquid part of blood
  • River in which blood cells travel
  • Makes up 55% of total volume
  • Carries blood cells +
    • Nutrients (sugars, amino acids, fats, salts, minerals)
    • Waste products (CO2, lactic acid, urea)
    • Antibodies
    • Clotting proteins (called clotting factors)
    • Chemical messengers (hormones)
    • Proteins that help maintain body’s fluid balance
blood rbcs hemoglobin
Blood—RBCs & Hemoglobin
  • Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
    • Highly specialized cells that have been “stripped” of everything, including nucleus
    • Major job: transporting oxygen
    • Percentage of RBCs in total blood volume called hematocrit
  • Hemoglobin
    • Special red-colored molecule that fills RBCs
    • Picks up oxygen in areas where O2 is abundant and releases O2 in tissues where O2 concentration lowest
blood white blood cells
Blood—White Blood Cells
  • 5 distinct kinds
    • Neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils
  • Able to change according to need and situation in body
  • Can leave blood stream , sliding out through vessel walls & attacking invaders at site of infections
blood platelets
  • Fragments of much larger cell (megakaryocyte) which stays in bone marrow after it differentiates and matures from stem cell
  • Platelets leave bone marrow & circulate throughout the body
  • When stimulated by substance from damaged tissue, platelets release substance to help clot blood
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Hollow tubes running throughout the body
  • 5 types
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • Veins
    • Venules
    • Capillaries
  • Provide 2 measurements:
    • Pulse
    • Blood pressure
  • Blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to organs & cells
  • Muscular walls that allow them to dilate or constrict
  • Arterioles: very small arteries
  • Largest artery=aorta
    • Runs from chest into abdomen
    • Receives blood directly from left ventricle
  • Blood vessels that carry blood back to heart
  • Thinner wall
  • Contain numerous one-way valves (keep blood moving toward heart)
  • Deep veins in LE surrounded by large muscle groups; compress the deep veins when muscles contract
  • Contractions in extremities helps propel blood toward heart; increase venous return
  • Largest vein=superior & inferior vena cava
    • Bring blood from upper and lower body into right atrium
  • Venules: smallest veins
  • Tiny, microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries to veins
  • Responsible for transferring oxygen and nutrients to cells
  • Wall so thin that O2 passes from arterial blood through them into cells in organs/tissues
  • Waste products (CO2) pass into capillaries to be carried back by veins to heart/lungs
coronary arteries
Coronary Arteries
  • The heart’s own system of blood vessels
  • Located around heart muscle to provide blood and oxygen to all parts of heart
  • Two primary coronary arteries branch off into smaller vessels
  • Right coronary artery: feeds right atrium & ventricle and bottom of left ventricle
  • Left main coronary artery: supplies blood to rest of heart
    • Left anterior descending
    • Circumflex
heart s conduction system
Heart’s Conduction System
  • Heart’s electrical system
  • Consisting of specialized cells within heart muscle that carry an electrical signal
  • Regulates pumping of heart
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Heart pumps blood into arteries; surge of blood filling vessels creates pressure against vessel walls
  • Pressure measured by 2 numbers:
    • Systolic: highest pressure in heart
      • Correlates to ventricular ctx
      • Average 120 mm/Hg
    • Diastolic: lowest pressure in heart
      • Relates to ventricular ctx
      • Average 80 mm/Hg
  • Pulse pressure: difference between diastolic and systolic pressures
  • Rhythmical beating of heart
  • Created by alternating expansion and contraction of artery as blood flows through
  • 7 areas where pulse can be felt
  • Brachial artery
  • Common carotid artery
  • Femoral artery
  • Dorsalispedis artery
  • Popliteal artery
  • Radial artery
  • Temporal artery
target heart rate
Target Heart Rate
  • Percentage of the maximum heart rate that is safe to reach during exercise
  • AHA recommends 50-75% for average healthy person
  • Calculated 220-age
  • THR is sliding scale that decreases with age
  • Tool for measuring cardiovascular exercise
  • Maintain THR for 15-30 min daily health benefits
flow of blood through heart
Flow of Blood through Heart
  • Superior/inferior vena cava
  • Right atrium
  • Tricuspid valve
  • Right ventricle
  • Semi-lunar valve
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Lungs

flow of blood through heart1
Flow of Blood through Heart
  • Back to heart via pulmonary vein
  • Left atrium
  • Bicuspid valve
  • Left ventricle
  • Semi-lunar valve
  • Aorta
  • Organs in the body