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FROM SOUTHWOLD SKIES TO THE UNIVERSE - a journey through space astronomy. Michael Rowan-Robinson. first detection of electromagnetic radiation outside the optical band: Herschel (1800) detected infrared radiation from the sun. Atmospheric transmission. Radio astronomy.

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from southwold skies to the universe a journey through space astronomy
FROM SOUTHWOLD SKIES TO THE UNIVERSE- a journey through space astronomy

Michael Rowan-Robinson

Southwold and Reydon Society

slide2
first detection of electromagnetic radiation outside the optical band:Herschel (1800) detectedinfrared radiation from the sun

Atmospheric transmission

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radio astronomy
Radio astronomy
  • 1933 Karl Jansky, detected Milky Way at radio wavelengths
  • 1940s Grote Reber, mapped the Milky Way
  • 1945, John Hey, discovered point sources
  • 1955-65 Cambridge, Parkes, surveyed the sky and catalogued extragalactic radio sources - radio-galaxies and quasars
  • 1967 discovery of pulsars

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x ray astronomy from space
X-ray astronomy from space
  • 1948 T.R.Burnight detects X-rays from sun using V2
  • 1962 Giacconi detects X-ray binary Sco-X1 using Aerobee rocket
  • 1963 Boyer detects Crab Nebula in X-rays (rocket)
  • 1965 first extragalactic X-ray source (M87, Byram, rocket)
  • 1970 Uhuru X-ray satellite maps sky at 2-20 KeV

many subsequent X-ray missions, through to Chandra and XMM, both launched in 1999

The Uhuru

satellite

before launch

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slide5

Uhuru detected X-rays

from compact sources

in binary systems (white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes), from quasars (massive black holes) and from very hot gas in clusters of galaxies (100 million

degree)

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slide6
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Kitt Peak, Arizona, 1974, my first observing run

slide7

JCMT 1987

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slide8

first submillimetre

survey of the sky,

using JCMT.

several very

luminous galaxies

found - galaxies

in the midst of their

main star and heavy

element formation.

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slide9

IRAS

1983 saw the launch of

IRAS, the Infrared

Astronomical Satellite, which made the first all-sky survey at infrared wavelengths, from 10-100 microns

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slide10

The launch of IRAS

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iras the infrared cirrus
IRAS - the infrared ‘cirrus’

emission from clouds

of interstellar dust in

our Galaxy

south celestial pole

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iras star forming regions
IRAS - star forming regions

constellation Orion

LMC, the Large Magellanic Cloud

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slide13

Uultraluminous

infrared galaxies

IRAS discovered

ultraluminous infrared

galaxies, forming stars

100-1000 times faster

than our Galaxy, probably

caused by mergers between

two galaxies

this is an image of Arp 220

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iras dust debris disks
IRAS - dust debris disks

IRAS also discovered dust debris disks around stars, confirmed by

imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope, evidence for planetary

systems in formation. Today over 300 exoplanets are known.

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slide15
IRAS

the IRAS all-sky survey of infrared point-sources: white: star-forming

regions, blue: red giant stars, green: galaxies

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slide16

the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma,

used to follow up IRAS galaxies

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mapping the universe
Mapping the Universe

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large scale structure
Large scale structure

The 3-dimensional

distribution of

galaxies shows

structure on

different scales.

This can be used

to estimate the

average density

of the universe.

In dimenionless

units:

Wo~ 0.27

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how much matter is there in the universe
How much matter is there in the universe ?

The light elements D, He, Li

are generated from nuclear

reactions about 1 minute

after the Big Bang. The

abundances turn out to

depend sensitively on the

density of ordinary matter

in the universe.

density ~ 4.10-28 kg/cu m

Wb ~ 0.04

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evidence for dark matter
Evidence for Dark Matter

the speed at which stars

orbit round a galaxy points

to the existence of a halo

of dark matter.

sensitive surveys show

that this can not be due to

stars, or gas.

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evidence for dark matter 2
Evidence for Dark Matter 2

images of clusters

of galaxies with

HST show arcs

due to gravitational

lensing. These can

be used to weigh

the cluster. Again,

the cluster is

dominated by dark

matter.

Abell 2218

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need for dark matter
Need for Dark Matter

So there is far more matter (Wo~ 0.27 ) out there than can be accounted for by the stuff we are made of (Wb ~ 0.04).

85% of the matter in the universe is ‘dark’ matter (the neutralino ?)

Particle Physicists hope to detect this at the Large Hadron Collider

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slide23

Audit of the mass-energy of the Universe:

4% ordinary matter

23% dark matter

73% dark energyDark en

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history of the universe
History of the universe

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spitzer 2003
SPITZER, 2003

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ic1396 the elephant s trunk
IC1396, the Elephant’s Trunk
  • a dark globule inside an emission nebula
  • a pair of newly formed stars have created a cavity
  • the animation shows how the appearance changes from the optical, where dust absorbs light to the infrared where the dust radiates

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slide30

Two interacting galaxies

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slide31

Visible and infrared images of the star-forming

galaxy Messier 82

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two new european space agency missions due for launch in april 2009
two new European Space Agency missions due for launch in April 2009

Planck

Herschel

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keck and vlt very large telescopes
Keck and VLT(Very Large Telescopes)

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slide34

how to detect z = 10 galaxies ?

James Webb Space Telescope

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