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ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Electroactive Polymers. Prepared by: Kylee Sealy Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University. 3/11/2005. Outline . Reference list To probe further Major applications

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ECE5320 MechatronicsAssignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Electroactive Polymers

Prepared by: Kylee Sealy

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

3/11/2005

outline
Outline
  • Reference list
  • To probe further
  • Major applications
  • Basic working principle illustrated
  • A typical sample configuration in application (application notes)
  • Major specifications
  • Limitations

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

reference list
Reference list
  • http://www.mae.cornell.edu/ccsl/papers/SFF04_Malone.pdf
  • http://forms.gradsch.psu.edu/equity/sroppapers/2003/EriboOsahonJr.pdf
  • http://ndeaa.jpl.nasa.gov/nasa-nde/lommas/eap/EAP-web.htm
  • http://www.teccenter.org/electroactive_polymers/
  • http://www.polysep.ucla.edu/Research%20Advances/EAP/electroactive_polymers_as_artifi.htm
  • http://www.teccenter.org/electroactive_polymers/assets/documents/all_ege_techpapers/MRS99_PA.DOC
  • http://forms.gradsch.psu.edu/equity/sroppapers/2003/EriboOsahonJr.pdf
  • http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/publicfeature/jun04/0604art.html
  • http://www.mech.kuleuven.ac.be/pma/project/ams/events/proceedings/Bar-Cohen-JPL-Biomimetic-Robots.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

to explore further survival pointers of web references etc
To explore further (survival pointers of web references etc)
  • http://www.aml.arizona.edu/%7Ecalvert/
  • http://www.sri.com/esd/automation/actuators.html
  • http://www.robots.neu.edu/
  • http://www.electropolymertechnology.com/web1.htm
  • http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast01mar_1.htm
  • http://www.uow.edu.au/science/research/ipri/
  • http://www.environmental-robots.com/
  • http://www.fetchbook.info/compare.do?search=1587161273
  • http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.03/start.html?pg=13

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications
Major applications
  • Synthetic Muscles
  • Micro-robots
  • Surgical Tools
  • Electro-rheological fluids
  • Biomedics
  • Micro-actuation
  • Insect or Animal Replication
  • Replicated Facial Expression

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic working principle
Basic Working Principle
  • Most electroactive polymers are stimulated using voltage or current through the polymer.
  • Upon stimulation electroactive polymers usually move in a symmetrical manner.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic working principle7
Basic Working Principle

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

types of electroactive polymers
Types of Electroactive Polymers
  • Ferroelectric Polymers
  • Dielectric Electroactive Polymers
  • Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers
  • Electrostrictive Paper
  • Electro-Viscoelastic Elastomers
  • Liquid Crystal Elastomer Materials
  • Ionic Polymer Gel
  • Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites
  • Conductive Polymers
  • Carbon Nanotubes

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ferroelectric polymers
Ferroelectric Polymers
  • Commonly known as piezoelectric actuators
  • Operate in wide temperature conditions
  • Can operate in air, water, or vacuum
  • Elongates when stimulated by electricity

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

dielectric eap
Dielectric EAP
  • Require large electric fields to stimulate (on the order of 100 V/micrometer)
  • Produce high strain levels

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

electrostrictive graft elastomers
Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers
  • Consists of two components: A flexible macromolecule backbone and a grafted polymer that can be produced in a crystalline form.
  • Can be operated as a piezoelectric sensor or even electrostrictive actuator

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

electrostrictive paper
Electrostrictive Paper
  • Contains lots of discrete elements which form a paper like structure because of their fibrous nature.
  • An example is silver laminate paper which bends when silver electrodes are placed

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

electro viscoelastic elastomers
Electro-Viscoelastic Elastomers
  • Composites of silicon elastomer and a polar phase.
  • Relatively small electric field required (<6 V/micrometer)
  • Can be used as alternatives to electro-rheological fluids for active damping applications.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

liquid crystal elastomer materials
Liquid Crystal Elastomer Materials
  • Stimulated by using Joule Heating.
  • Consist of monodomain nematic liquid crystal elastomers and conductive polymers.
  • Actuation occurs in less than a second

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ionic polymer gel
Ionic Polymer Gel
  • Have the potential of matching the force and energy density of biological muscles.
  • Polyacrylonitrile materials are activated by chemical reaction(s).
  • A change from an acid to an alkaline environment induces an actuation through the gel becoming dense or swollen.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ionomeric polymer metal composites
Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites
  • Require low voltages to stimulate bending response (1 – 10V).
  • Bend in response to an electrical activation as a result of the mobility of cations in the polymer network.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

conductive polymers
Conductive Polymers
  • Actuate via the reversible counter-ion insertion and expulsion that occurs during redox cycling.
  • Requires low voltage range around 1 – 5 V.
  • Seen as “miniature boxes”.
  • Voltage variation can control actuation speed.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

carbon nanotubes
Carbon Nanotubes
  • Have diamond-like mechanical properties.
  • Can boast the highest work per cycle and generate much higher mechanical stresses than other forms of electroactive polymers.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

futuristic configurations
Futuristic Configurations
  • Active catheter
  • Dust wiper for nano-rover
  • Robotic gripper
  • Elliptical Friction Drive Device
  • Tactile display

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major specifications
Major Specifications
  • Strain levels
  • Chemical makeup
  • Voltage requirement for stimulation
  • Response time
  • Actuation force
  • Actuation length
  • Cost
  • Size
  • Chemical structure

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

limitations
Limitations
  • Require specialized processes to produce
  • Difficult to work with without specialized instrumentation
  • Can require large voltages in certain polymers
  • May require AC voltages in most polymers
  • Difficult to produce consistent material
  • Do not always have linear responses
  • Difficult to design feedback for control applications.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators