Dental Anomalies • Definition of anomaly- Noticeably different or deviates from norm.
Results from: • Heredity • Tooth Development • Defeat • Physical, chemical trauma • Nutritional deficiencies • Stress, habits, environmental
Hereditary- occurs because of individual genetic makeup Congenital- occurs at or before birth Developmental anomaly- during formation and development of dental structure.
VARIATION IN SIZE • Macrodontia- too large • Microdontia- too small
VARIATION IN NUMBER • Anodontia or Hypodontia- too few • Hyperdontia or Supernumerary- extra teeth
VARIATION IN FORM • Peg-shaped teeth- max. lateral area • Odontoma- tumorous calcified dental tissues
Dents in dente- tooth within a tooth • Gemination- attempt of a tooth bud to divide
Fusion- 2 adjacent tooth germs unite. • Dilaceration- severe bend in the root or tooth; usually found in 3rd molars
DISTURBANCES IN TOOTH FORMATION • Enamel dysplasia- abnormal enamel development • Enamel hypoplasia- may leave small pits or grooves at different levels in the crown; formed by a systemic interference (fever).
AmelogenesisImperfecta- hereditary, hypocalcification, is very thin, stained various shades of yellow and brown, easily fractured. • Enamel fluorosis- excessive fluoride, opaque white patches in enamel, may be mottled, striated, or pitted.
Dentinogenesisimperfecta- hereditary; effects the dentin. Causes gray, brown or yellow, but tooth exhibits unusual translucent hue; pulp chambers and canals are filled with dentin.
Tetracycline Staining- when expectant mother takes antibotic called tetracycline; teeth discolor • Hypercementosis- excessive cementum formation around the apical third of root after the tooth had erupted.
ERUPTION • Natal teeth- present at birth; usually no root; shed soon • Neo-natal teeth- erupt within the first 30 days of life; shed soon because of lack of adequate roots
Impaction- any tooth that remains unerupted in the jaw beyond the time it would normally erupt. • Ankylosis- fusion of cementum or dentin with alveolar bone.
Attrition- gradual and regular loss of tooth substance. Caused by bruxism (clenching), chewing tobacco, other oral habits (grinding). • Abrasion- wearing away for dental hard tissue by friction of foreign body. Opening hair pins, excessive pipe smoking, ill fitting partial dentures.
Erosion- superficial loss of hard dental tissue by chemical process. Sucking lemons, excessive grape juice, excessive cola • Abnormal resorption- diagnosed by radiographs; rarely causes symptoms. Results from trauma. Impacted teeth, replanted avulsed teeth.