TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories

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  1. TEORI MOTIVASIContent Theories Mustika Lukman Arief www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  2. Materi Pengajaran • Pengertian dan Model Motivasi • Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow • Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg • Teori kebutuhan McClelland • Alderfer’s ERG theory www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  3. Pengertian dan Model Motivasi Pengertian The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual need Model Motivasi • Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow • Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg • Teori kebutuhan McClelland • Alderfer’s ERG theory Source : Stephen P. Robbins www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  4. The Motivational Process : An Initial Model I Need deficiencies “I want to perform well to earn the promotion.” VI Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee “I still want the promotion. I’ve got to try another approach.” II Search for ways satisfy needs “I need to show the manager that I want the promotion work on tough assignments, work extra hours, help co-worker.” The Employee V Rewards of punishments “Received recognition award; granted the opportunity to attend training program.” III Goal directed behavior “The Promotion.” IV Performance (evaluation of goal accomplished) “Highest ratings on quantity, quality and cost containment.” www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  5. Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow “That people’s needs depend on what they already have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs isn’t a motivator. Human needs, organized in a hierarchy of importance, are physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization” Source : Gibson www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self actualization Esteem Social / Belongingness Safety Physiological Source : Stephen P. Robbins www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  7. TEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERG View that job satisfaction results from the presence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from not having extrinsic factors Source : Gibson www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  8. Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Dissatifaction I. Traditional High job satisfaction High job dissatisfaction II. Herzberg’s two-factor view High job satisfaction (motivator) Low job satisfaction High job satisfaction (hygiene) Low job dissatisfaction www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com Source : Gibson

  9. Teori Kebutuhan McClelland Learned Needs Theory Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society Thematis Apperception Test (TAT) Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture to evaluate such individual differences as need for achivement, need for power, and need for affiliation Source : Gibson www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  10. The theory focus on three needs 1. Need for achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed 2. Need for power The need to make others behave in a way that they wouldn’t have behaved otherwise 3. Need for affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  11. Alderfer’s ERG theory Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorized needs as existence, related-ness and growth Existence; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions Related-ness; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship Growth; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions Source : Gibson www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  12. Frustration of growth needs Importance of growth needs Satisfaction of growth needs Frustration of relatedness needs Importance of relatedness needs Satisfaction of relatedness needs Frustration of existence needs Importance of existence needs Satisfaction of existence needs ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance and Satisfaction of Needs Source : Gibson www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com

  13. A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualization Esteem Belongingness, social and love Physiological Herzberg (two factor theory) The work itself - Responsibility • Advancement • Growth Achievement Recognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with supervisor, with subordinates Job security Working conditions Salary Alderfer Growth Relatedness Existence Mc Clelland Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation Higher order needs Motivators Hygiens conditions Basic needs www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com