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Overview of Green ICT BCS Academics Forum 14 November 2008. Margaret Ross, Southampton Solent University, UK Bob Crooks DEFRA. Why go Green...?. Climate Change => warming, disasters (fires and floods), loss of biodiversity, less to go round more

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overview of green ict bcs academics forum 14 november 2008

Overview of Green ICTBCS Academics Forum14 November 2008

Margaret Ross,

Southampton Solent University, UK

Bob Crooks

DEFRA

why go green
Why go Green...?
  • Climate Change => warming, disasters (fires and floods), loss of biodiversity, less to go round more
  • Population growth, 2000 to 2030 of 2.2billion, of which 2.0billion likely to be located in cities*
  • 5 billion people consume 20% and 1 billion consume 80% (Ericsson)

=> we need 2.5 planets to bring everyone up to the US/EU levels of living

=> energy, food and resource costs will rise

=> “we have to do more with less” (Buckminster-Fuller)

*“World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001 Revision”, www.unpopulation.org

greening the uk
Greening the UK
  • UK government has a Kyoto target to reduce greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050 (Climate Change Bill)
  • UK annual CO2 emissions = 560 million tonnes of which => 22mtonnes from ICT => 4% and this is growing
  • And ICT is an increasingly important contributor to Carbon emissions in the UK => the footprint for computer usage now exceeds that for the UK aircraft industry and growing business and domestic use of ICT
  • Government is largest ICT spender in UK: some £14b per annum
the response pressure on uk government industry
The response ...pressure on UK government & industry
  • UK Government’s sustainable procurement action plan identified computing as an area for urgent consideration.
  • HMG Green ICT strategy includes
    • Carbon neutrality by 2012 for ICT in use
    • Carbon neutrality by 2020 across the ICT lifecycle
    • Things to do!
  • Local Authorities required to indicate how they plan to contribute to the national energy saving target of 9% by 2017.
we need
We need
  • Students and staff to
    • understand the issues, be aware and skilled in tackling them, promote green behaviours
    • use their own and Estab’s ICT in greener ways
  • Educational establishments to see Green as
    • enhancing reputation and attraction for students
    • reducing costs (less Carbon = Less energy => less cost)
  • Courses to provide
    • Accreditation of Green skills and knowledge
    • Green dimensions
the end user
The end user...
  • Knowledge/awareness
  • Behaviour changes
relate to employee at work and home
Relate to Employee at Work and Home

Estimations produced before Christmas by the Carbon Trust which indicated

  • failure to turn off equipment over the festive season cost UK businesses £6.2 million a day
  • 550,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide will have been needlessly emitted into the atmosphere.

Www. Computing.co.uk/greencomputing

relate to employee at work and home1
Relate to Employee at Work and Home

Survey by Logicalis indicated

  • 85% of employees switch off their home PC when they have finished with it,
  • only 66% turn off work machines after use

Www. Computing.co.uk/greencomputing

energy saving it from carbon trust
Energy-saving IT from Carbon Trust
  • A computer left on 24/7 will cost about £37 a year, whereas by switching off at night and weekends, the charge can be reduced to about £10 a year - and save an equivalent amount of energy to make some 34,900 cups of coffee
  • Lighting an office overnight wastes enough energy to heat water for 1,000 cups of tea
energy saving it from carbon trust1
Energy-saving IT from Carbon Trust
  • A typical window left open overnight in winter will waste enoughenergy todrive a small car for more than35 miles
  • A PC monitor switched off overnight saves enough energy tomicrowave six dinners
  • Turning off all non essential equipment in an office for one night will save enough energy to run asmall car for100 miles
energy saving it from carbon trust2
Energy-saving IT from Carbon Trust
  • Monitors account for almost two-thirds of a computer's energy use
  • Office equipment is the fastest-growing area of energy use, accounting for up to 20% of total energy use.

Www.Computing.co.uk/greencomputing

raising student awareness
Raising Student Awareness

Identify suitable articles, such as from Computing and Computer Weekly, with brief description and web reference for further information, on the students' Virtual Learning Environment.

  • Students asked to read these, and the follow-up web links
  • In tutorials, a short quiz entitled “What's this all about"
  • Student teams identify and expand on the particular situation, from relevant articles in the previous two weeks.
  • Encourages a deeper understanding of the various topics, and keeps students' knowledge current
associated topics
Associated Topics

Video and Tele conferencing

  • Initial face-to-face meetings,
  • Time zones, cultural issues
  • Reduced networking opportunities

Teleworking

  • Heating, lighting in individual home
  • Additional IT equipment
  • Reduced travel
  • Available room/security at home
  • Family life
  • Isolation and reduced networking
assignments and projects
Assignments and Projects

Assessment:

  • Case history or evaluation of an organisation
  • Survey, eg of local SMEs
  • Audits
  • Learning Activities, eg multi-choice questions

Identifying for an organisation

  • Benefits and risks
  • “Road map” with priorities justified,
  • Budget, time scale
  • Business case
the organisation
The organisation...
  • A Champion?
  • Knowledge/awareness
  • Behaviour changes
the journey to effective greening
The Journey to Effective Greening
  • The first step on the journey is raising awareness at all levels.
  • Its about technology and about behaviours
  • Needs leadership => appoint a senior member as "champion" of the Greening Policies and Practices.
  • Needs employee commitment => Expose the current consumption to win hearts and minds.
  • Go for the blindingly obvious things now – don’t move deckchairs around!
the journey to effective greening1
The Journey to Effective Greening

=> Get a champion to...

  • Understand best practice from journals, latest reports, many freely available from the Internet,
  • Do the obvious things now, eg buy greener kit at next refresh eg Energy Star rated (like Fridges)
  • Get others to be aware of how to use IT to work and do business in greener ways.
reduce daily consumption turn it down or switch it off
=> Reduce Daily Consumptionturn it down or switch it off!
  • Awareness sessions and posters to staff to switch off the lights when not required;
  • Lights to automatically switch off when no movement within the room;
  • Switching off computers, when not required, either by the users or automatically;
  • Reduce default brightness settings on monitors
slide19

5%

5%

13%

10%

67%

  • TURN IT OFF!...
take less from the environment
=> Take Less from the Environment
  • Use recycled paper;
  • Use recycled print cartridges;
  • Set printers for double-sided or side by side (or both!) printing as the default option;
  • Or even consider...Why print?
manufacture of pc accounts for 80 of the total energy used in a 3 year life cycle

MANUFACTURE OF PC ACCOUNTS FOR ~80% OF THE TOTAL ENERGY USED IN A 3 YEAR LIFE-CYCLE

Life-cycle energy consumption for a typical office PC and screen* over 3 years, (100% = 7,900 MJ)

  • Extension of usable lifespan rather than immediate recycling of components
  • Extending the life of a 3 year-old PC by 2 years would reduce the annual average energy use over the lifetime of the PC by approximately 30%
  • Nevertheless ensure that the recipients recycle systems appropriately at end-of-life
  • Excludes disposal costs

Manufactureof equipment

3 yearsusage

Total

  • *NB Screen used in this analysis was CRT;
  • Source: Eric Williams (UN University, Tokyo) 2005; team analysis

23

extending pc life by 2 years reduces average life cycle energy consumption per year by around 30

EXTENDING PC LIFE BY 2 YEARS REDUCES AVERAGE LIFE-CYCLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER YEAR BY AROUND 30%

  • Desktop PC replaced after 3 years, MJ
  • Replacing a PC after 3 years will require a total of 15,300 MJ of energy in manufacture and use over 5 years
  • Using the same PC for the full 5 years will require a total of 8,900 MJ in manufacture and use over 5 years
  • Extending the lifetime of a PC reduces the total life-cycle energy consumption by around 30% per year over the 5 years

Use 2nd PC (2 years)

Build Ist PC and monitor

Use first PC (3yrs)

Build 2nd PC

  • Desktop PC used for 5 years (refurbished after 3 years), MJ

0

Manufacture

of first PC and monitor

Use of refurbished first PC

Use of first PC

Refurbish first PC

* Screen used in analysis was CRT; use of LCD reduces in-use energy consumption, increases manufacturing energy consumption

Source: Fraunhofer Institute; Eric Williams et. al. (Tokyo) 2005; team analysis

24

take less from the environment1
=> Take Less from the Environment
  • Upgrade rather than replace
  • Check "Green" rating of all purchases (EPEAT, Energy Star, ECMA ...);
  • Government ‘Quick Wins’ criteria
  • Make the case for carbon : buy video/tele conferencing - save travel;
  • Assess value of investment in energy terms as well as business function
use ict to attack the 98
=> Use ICT to Attack the 98%
  • Reduce paper and presence, increase use of ICT
  • Electronic meetings – video and teleconf’cing, webinars
  • Encourage smarter working
    • Team and course sites
    • Access anytime anywhere
  • And in the office/workspace
    • Utilise the concept of "hot rooming" to reduce the heating and lighting to a limited area, outside normal working hours
    • Improve the physical security so staff feel able to start and work later, so maybe reduce overall space required to house everyone at a peak time
dispose carefully
=> Dispose Carefully

Effect on firms of WEEE:

  • Must maintain asset register
  • Contracts (new for old products)
  • Care in disposal eg hazardous substances in CRT and plasma screens
dispose carefully1
=> Dispose Carefully
  • Providing separate bins for staff to separate their waste for re-cycling;
  • Re-cycle replaced but working equipment, eg gifts to employees or for refurbishment to local or overseas schools;
  • Deletion of data when going to charity/staff
  • Ethical aspects - immediate and

also long-term (benefit to offshore charities - long-term problem disposal at end of life)

slide30

The Data Centre...

Data Centre Utilisation

Data Centre Utilisation

45%

Server utilisation

Server utilisation

=> 55% into power and cooling

30%

=> 40% into supply/fans..

Processor utilisation

20%

=> 2% into active processor

Source: Computacentre

data centre rationalisation projects can achieve energy cost savings of 50 to 80
DATA CENTRE RATIONALISATION PROJECTS CAN ACHIEVE ENERGY COST SAVINGS OF 50% TO 80%

To

From

  • Reduce maintenance charges and energy costs from suppliers by turning off unused servers (“mystery machines”)
  • Reduce maintenance charges and energy costs from suppliers by reducing total number of active servers through consolidation
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reducing energy consumption directly (fewer servers) and indirectly (less cooling)

100% oforiginalenergyusage

5% to 15%of originalusage

5% to 15%of updatedusage

46-78%reduction

40% to 70%of updatedusage

22% to 54%of originalusage

Original level of energy usage

Switch offunused servers

Consolidate

services

Virtualise

servers

New level ofenergy usage

Typical data centre rationalisation

  • Multiple legacy data centres
  • Large number of servers with low utilisation/server
  • Inefficient legacy servers without power management
  • Machines still running after services have been retired
  • Small number of modern data centres
  • Small number of servers with high utilisation per server
  • Highly efficient servers with active power management.
  • All “mystery machines” identified and retired or re-used

Source: Team analysis; HP; IBM; Uptime Institute; Rocky Mountain Institute; AMD; US OMB (Congress); US EPA; LBNL; interviews

31

future issues
Future Issues
  • How are you going to measure progress, account for your Greening IT actions?
  • Possible need for external auditing of “Greenness"
  • Possible new Green accreditation for orgs and business processes with need for trained "Green" advisors/Champions.
  • Enabling managers to provide suitably qualified employees, capable of ensuring the "Greenness" of Org’s products and services.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Best practice evolving at a fast pace, need to invest in keeping up to date
  • Given energy price issues and ability to use IT as a tool to effect gains elsewhere the business case can now be made for Green IT.
  • There are some things you can and should do now
and the curriculum
And the Curriculum...
  • BCS initiatives
    • ISEB module
    • SME awareness
    • Branch forum/mash ups
  • Evolving – need your feedback!
slide35

The whole lifecycle ?

Power

Operating

IT device

Production

Re-use

Disposal

Heat

slide36

The whole lifecycle ?

Equipment behaviours

Energy suppliers

Power

Power

Power

NGOs

Charities

Silver surfers

Transport

Materials

Recycle

Packaging

Operating

IT device

Production

Re-use

Disposal

WEEE

regs

  • Recycle
  • Reclaim

Burn, landfill..

Waste

Heat

RoHS

Reg

Equipment

cooling

Air Conditioning

slide37

The whole lifecycle ?

Equipment behaviours

Energy suppliers

Power

Power

Power

NGOs

Charities

Silver surfers

Transport

Materials

Recycle

Packaging

Operating

IT device

Production

WEEE

regs

  • Re-use
  • Recycle
  • Reclaim

Disposal

Waste

Burn, landfill..

Heat

RoHS

Reg

Equipment

cooling

Air Conditioning

the greening grid
The Greening Grid...

Activities/assets/products

Context

Metrics

Legal

Economics

Environment

Social/ethics

People

Vs

  • Technologies
  • Services
  • Carbon
  • Procurement
  • Operations
  • Products and Services
useful web sites
Useful Web Sites
  • Carbon Trust, www.carbontrust.co.uk
  • Energy Star, www.energystar.gov
  • Computing, www.Computing.co.uk/greencomputing
  • Defra, www.defra.gov.uk
  • Energy Saving Trust, www.energysavingtrust.org.uk
  • NetRegs, www.netregs.gov.uk