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Introduction to Neutron Scattering. Jason T. Haraldsen Advanced Solid State II 2/27/2007. Why Neutrons?. Neutrons have No Charge ! Highly penetrating Nondestructive Can be used in extremes Neutrons have a Magnetic Moment ! Magnetic structure Fluctuations Magnetic materials

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introduction to neutron scattering

Introduction to Neutron Scattering

Jason T. Haraldsen

Advanced Solid State II

2/27/2007

why neutrons
Why Neutrons?
  • Neutrons have No Charge!
  • Highly penetrating
  • Nondestructive
  • Can be used in extremes
  • Neutrons have a Magnetic Moment!
  • Magnetic structure
  • Fluctuations
  • Magnetic materials
  • Neutrons have Spin!
  • Polarized beams
  • Atomic orientation
  • Coherent and incoherent scattering
  • The Energies of neutrons are similar to the energies of elementary excitations!
  • Molecular Vibrations and Lattice modes
  • Magnetic excitations
  • The Wavelengths of neutrons are similar to atomic spacing!
  • Sensitive to structure
  • Gathers information from 10-10 to 10-7 m
  • Crystal structures and atomic spacings
  • Neutrons probe Nuclei!
  • Light atom sensitive
  • Sensitive to isotopic substitution
neutrons vs x rays
Neutrons vs. X-rays!

Chatterji, Neutron Scattering from Magnetic Materials (2006)

Neutrons allow easy access to atoms that are usually unseen in X-ray Scattering

how are neutrons useful
How are neutrons useful?

Mitchell et. al, Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons (2005)

how do we get neutrons research reactor sources
How do we get neutrons?Research Reactor Sources
  • Uses nuclear fission to create neutrons
  • Continuous neutron flux
  • Flux is dependent on fission rate
  • Limited by heat flow in from the reaction
  • Creates radioactive nuclear waste

Pynn, Neutron Scattering: A Primer (1989)

how do we get neutrons spallation sources
How do we get neutrons?Spallation Sources
  • Uses a cascade effect from the collision of a proton on a heavy metal.
  • Pulsed Source
  • High Intensity
  • Heat production is relatively low

Mitchell et. al, Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons (2005)

how do we get neutrons reactor or spallation sources
How do we get neutrons?Reactor or Spallation Sources

Spallation Sources

  • Pulsed source
  • High intensity
  • Heat production is relatively low

Reactor Sources

  • Continuous flux
  • Limited by heat flow in from the reaction

Mitchell et. al, Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons (2005)

what is neutron scattering
What is neutron scattering?

Elastic Neutron Scattering

  • No loss of energy
  • Examines the change in momentum or angle of the neutrons.

Inelastic Neutron Scattering

  • Examines both momentum and energy dependencies.

Pynn, Neutron Scattering: A Primer (1989)

the neutron scattering factor
The Neutron Scattering Factor

Total Differential Cross-Section

Neutron Structure Factor

Fourier Transform

Pair Correlation Function

Squires, Introduction to the theory of thermal neutron scattering (1996)

elastic neutron scattering
Elastic Neutron Scattering
  • Determine length scales and differentiate between nano-, micro-, and macro-systems.
  • Utilizes position and momentum correlation.

Mitchell et. al, Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons (2005)

Pynn, Neutron Scattering: A Primer (1989)

inelastic neutron scattering
Inelastic Neutron Scattering

Uses both change in momentum and energy to characterize a systems vibrational, magnetic, and lattice excitations.

Mitchell et. al, Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons (2005)

vibrational and magnetic excitations
Vibrational and Magnetic Excitations
  • Vibrational excitations are broad, large excitations.
  • Neutrons observe all phonon and vibrational excitations. The intensity is determined by the phonons polarization vectors.
  • Magnetic excitations are detailed by spin transitions of ΔS = 0 and ± 1.
  • Q-dependence of magnetic excitations help determine the magnetic structure within the material.

Magnetic Excitations

Phonon Excitations

M. B. Stone et al. Unpublished (2007)

inelastic neutron scattering a magnetic example
Inelastic Neutron Scattering:A magnetic example!

The use of neutron scattering on the material of VODPO4● ½ D2O clarified the magnetic structure of the material.

V4+

V4+

V4+

Tennant et. al, PRL (1997)

summary
Summary
  • Neutrons are produced in two main ways
      • Research Reactors
      • Spallation Sources
  • Utilizes the properties of the neutron.
  • Neutrons are useful in determining not only structural properties of a material, but also the vibrational, magnetic, and lattice excitations.