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Mr. Burton. North Africa. Physical Features of N. Africa. The Nile River is the longest river in the world. Flows more than 4,000 miles northward through the desert Formed by the union of two rivers, the Blue Nile and the White Nile Empties into the Mediterranean Sea

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North Africa

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physical features of n africa
Physical Features of N. Africa
  • The Nile River is the longest river in the world.
    • Flows more than 4,000 miles northward through the desert
    • Formed by the union of two rivers, the Blue Nile and the White Nile
    • Empties into the Mediterranean Sea
  • The land along the Nile is very fertile.
    • Floods on the river deposit silt, or finely ground fertile soil, all along the river.
    • Before it reaches the sea, the Nile fans out into a huge fertile delta.
mountain ranges
Mountain Ranges
  • Several mountain ranges can be found in the Sahara.
  • The highest mountains are the Atlas Mountains in the northwest, near the Mediterranean Sea. They rise to 13,600 feet (4,160 m) above sea level.
sahara dessert
Sahara Dessert
  • Largest desert in the world, covering most of North Africa
  • Very dry, so very few people live there
  • Nearly every settlement in the Sahara is located near an oasis, a wet and fertile area in a desert where a spring or well provides water.
  • Common features in the Sahara include broad gravel plains, tall sand dunes, and dry streambeds.
climate and natural resources
Climate and natural resources
  • Three main climates: Steppe, Mediterranean, and Dessert.
  • Natural Resources: Oil, Coal, Natural Gas.
ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian civilization began after 3200 BC.
  • The Egyptians are most famous for building huge stone monuments, especially pyramids.
    • The pyramids were built as tombs for pharaohs, or Egyptian kings.
    • The largest pyramid is called the Great Pyramid. It is still standing today.
  • The Egyptians also developed a writing system called hieroglyphics.
influence of different cultures greek and european
Influence of different cultures: Greek and European
  • The Greeks under Alexander the Great invaded Egypt.
  • They built a city, Alexandria, that became a center of trade and culture.
  • In the 600s the Arabs conquered much of North Africa.
  • They brought the Arabic language and Islam to the region.
  • By 1912 European countries such as Britain, Spain, France, and Italy had taken over North Africa.
  • North Africa regained independence beginning in the 1920s. The last country to become free was Algeria in 1962.
culture of north africa
Culture of North Africa
  • Foods
  • Grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts are common.
  • Couscous—dish made from wheat served with meat or vegetables
  • Fuul—Egyptian dish made from fava beans, olive oil, garlic, and lemons
  • Holidays and Customs
  • Most holidays are religious.
  • Cafes are gathering places.
  • People greet each other by shaking hands and touching their hearts.
  • Traditional clothes are long and loose.
egyptian life
Egyptian life
  • Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa with more than 75 million people. Most of them are poor farmers.
  • Egypt is a republic, though its government is influenced by Islamic law. People are torn over how much influence Islam should have and how much the government should participate in foreign affairs.
  • Most people are very poor and do not have clean water.
    • Disease is common.
    • About half of all Egyptians cannot read or write.
    • The Egyptian government has made great progress in improving people’s lives.
north african cities
North African Cities
  • Many North African cities have large marketplaces called souks.
    • Merchants in souks sell goods like spices, carpets, and copper products.
    • A souk is often located in the old section of a city called the Casbah.
  • Cities in Libya and Tunisia are mostly on the coast. The largest cities are Benghazi and Tripoli, Libya, and Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Morocco’s largest cities are Casablanca and Tangier. Both are tourist attractions, and Tangier is a free port, a city in which goods are not heavily taxed.
libya and algeria
Libya and Algeria
  • Ruled since 1969 by General Mu’ammar al-Gadhafi, a dictator, or ruler with complete power
  • Gadhafi supported violence against Israel, so many other countries limit their relations with Libya.
  • In the 1990s violence broke out between the government and Islamic groups.
  • Today Algeria is working to recover from the violence and strengthen its economy.
tunisia and morocco
Tunisia and Morocco
  • Close economic relations with many European countries
  • Tunisian women have more rights than others in the region.
  • Only country in North Africa with little oil
  • Important producer and exporter of fertilizer