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The Ottoman Empire. Essential Question. Why were the Ottoman Sultans able to rule as all-powerful rulers?. Introduction. The 1 st Ottoman were nomadic Turkish warriors for Islam, from Central Asia Fled from Central Asia to escape the Mongols Attacked the Byzantines

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Presentation Transcript
essential question
Essential Question
  • Why were the Ottoman Sultans able to rule as all-powerful rulers?
introduction
Introduction
  • The 1st Ottoman were nomadic Turkish warriors for Islam, from Central Asia
  • Fled from Central Asia to escape the Mongols
  • Attacked the Byzantines
    • Failed to capture Constantinople (Capital)
    • Captured Adrianopolis (2nd most important city)
  • 1396 – 1st Sultan (ruler) appointed
elite ottoman army
Elite Ottoman Army
  • Known as Janissaries
  • Made up of young war captives & Christian slaves
  • Were converted to Islam, then trained as soldiers
  • Belonged to the Sultan, & served for life
  • Gained power & influence, eventually became important political group
timur challenges the ottomans
Timur Challenges the Ottomans
  • Timur – Turko-Mongol leader
  • Born in 1336, claimed he was a descendant of Genghis Khan
  • Created an army, built power in Central Asia, & began a career of conquest
  • 1402 – Defeats Ottoman Army in Battle of Ankara
  • Captures Sultan, forced Ottomans to return territory they took from others
recovery expansion
Recovery & Expansion
  • Civil war broke out over who should be next Sultan
  • Murad II took power & began to expand empire
  • Defeated last European crusaders in Battle of Varna
  • Followed by Mehmed II
  • Conquered Constantinople (Byzantine Capital) in 1453
  • Renamed city Istanbul – Became Ottoman capital
suleiman the magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
  • Greatest Ottoman Sultan
  • Ruled from 1520 – 1566
  • Led Ottoman Empire to Golden Age
  • Reunited Muslim world (except Persia & Afghanistan) by conquering North Africa
government society
Government & Society
  • Sultan
    • Governed from Istanbul as all-powerful ruler
    • Empire was well-organized & efficiently governed
    • Assisted by Janissaries
    • 2nd in Command – Grand Viziers
government society1
Government & Society
  • Society – 2 major groups
    • Small ruling class
    • Reaya – Larger group of ordinary people
    • There was social mobility
government society2
Government & Society
  • Millet System
    • Reaya made up of different groups of people
    • Muslim Turks, Christians, Jews, & Arabs
    • Strong religious tension
    • Religious freedom was allowed by Sultans
    • Millet – Separate religious communities of Reaya
    • Under control of Sultan, but governed themselves
    • Each has its own laws, customs, courts, taxes, education, health system, & defense
the slow decline
The Slow Decline
  • 1566 – Suleiman the Magnificent dies
  • Marked beginning of the decline
  • 1571 – Phillip II leads Spanish navy to defeat Ottomans
  • Battle of Lepanto – Europeans defeat Ottomans near Greece
the slow decline1
The Slow Decline
  • 1600 – Government & Economy face problems
    • Lost control of silk & spice trade
    • New trade routes bypassed Ottoman Empire
    • Power of Sultans weakened
    • Government became corrupt due to internal power struggles
    • Rebellions among the Janissaries
  • Lost territory to Russia & France
  • 1923 – Empire ends when Turkey establishes a republic