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Endangered Species. Endangered Species Act.

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Endangered Species

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endangered species act
Endangered Species Act
  • Nothing is more priceless and more worthy of preservation than the rich array of animal life with which our country has been blessed. It is a many-faceted treasure, of value to scholars, scientists, and nature lovers alike, and it forms a vital part of the heritage we all share as Americans. President Richard Nixon – Statement upon signing the Endangered Species Act, December 28, 1973
endangered species act1
Endangered Species Act
  • The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) [pdf] was signed on December 28, 1973, and provides for the conservation of species that are endangered or threatened throughout all or a significant portion of their range, and the conservation of the ecosystems on which they depend. The ESA replaced the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969; it has been amended several times.
endangered vs threatened
Endangered vs Threatened
  • A species is considered endangered if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
  • A species is considered threatened if it is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future.
endangered species act2
Endangered Species Act
  • There are approximately 1,950 total species listed under the ESA. Of these species, approximately 1,375 are found in part or entirely in the U.S. and its waters; the remainder are foreign species.
esa responsibility
ESA Responsibility
  • NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) share responsibility for implementing the ESA.
  • http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/
  • http://www.fws.gov/
shared responsibility
Shared Responsibility
  • USFWS manages land and freshwater species
  • NMFS manages marine and anadromous* species. NMFS has jurisdiction over 72 listed species.
  • *Species that live their adult lives in the ocean but move into freshwater streams to reproduce or spawn (e.g., salmon).
protection conservation and recovery
Protection, Conservation, and Recovery
  • The listing of a species as endangered makes it illegal to "take" (harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, collect, or attempt to do these things) that species.
  • Similar prohibitions usually extend to threatened species.
  • Federal agencies may be allowed limited take of species through interagency consultations with NMFS or USFWS.
  • Non-federal individuals, agencies, or organizations may have limited take through special permits with conservation plans.
summary of the endangered species act
Summary of the Endangered Species Act
  • 16 U.S.C. §1531 et seq. (1973)
  • The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found.
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)maintains a worldwide list of endangered species.
  • Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees.
summary of the endangered species act1
Summary of the Endangered Species Act
  • The law requires federal agencies, in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and/or the NOAA Fisheries Service, to ensure that actions they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any listed speciesor result in the destruction or adverse modification of designated critical habitat of such species. 
summary of the endangered species act2
Summary of the Endangered Species Act
  • The law also prohibits any action that causes a "taking" of any listed species of endangered fish or wildlife.
  • Likewise, import, export, interstate, and foreign commerce of listed species are all generally prohibited.
review endangered species act of 1973
Review: Endangered Species Act of 1973
  • The Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act) describes two categories of declining species of plants and animals that need the Act’s protections – endangered species and threatened species – and provides these definitions:
  • ENDANGERED - any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range;
  • THREATENED - any species that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
in simple terms
  • Endangered species are at the brink of extinction now.
  • Threatened species are likely to be at the brink in the near future.
what is the difference in how the esa deals with endangered species vs threatened species
What is the difference in how the ESA deals with endangered species vs. threatened species?
  • All of the protections of the Act are provided to endangered species. Many, but not all, of those protections also are available to threatened species.
  • However, the Service has the authority to determine which protections should apply to each threatened species; in other words, we can select and fine tune the protections that best meet the species’ recovery needs.
threatened status benefits
Threatened status: benefits
  • Threatened status benefits species and people in two situations:
  • (1) it provides Federal protection before a species reaches the brink of extinction; and
  • (2) in the case of species that were initially listed as endangered, threatened status also allows scaling back Federal protection as they recover and no longer need the maximum protections of the Act.
causes of endangerment
Causes of Endangerment
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Invasive Species
  • Overexploitation / Hunting
  • Pollution
endangered animals
Endangered Animals
  • Elephants
    • African Elephant (Loxodontaafricana)
    • Asian Elephant (Elephasmaximus)
  • Whales
    • Right Whale (Eubalaenaglacialis)
    • Blue Whale (Balaenopteramusculus)
    • Fin Whale (Balaenopteraphysalus)
  • Primates
    • Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)
    • Hybrid Spider Monkey (Atelesbelzebuthhybridus)
    • Aye-aye (Daubentoniamadagascariensis)
    • Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)


    • AmurLeopard(Panthera pardusorientalis)
    • Anatolian Leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana)
    • Asiatic Cheetah (Acinonyxjubatusvenaticus)
    • Florida Cougar (Puma concolor coryi)
    • Lesser Panda (Ailurusfulgens)
    • Marine Otter (Lutrafelina)
    • Tiger (Pantheratigris)
  • Cypriniformes
    • Wild Common Carp (Cyprinuscarpio)
    • Silver Shark (Balantiocheilosmelanopterus)

Cranes, rails, trumpeters

  • Blue-bellied Parrot (Tridariamalachitacea)
  • Passerines
    • Cochabamba Mountain-finch (Poospizagarleppi)
    • Hawaiian Crow (Corvushawaiiensis)
  • Eagles, hawks, and vultures
  • Kingfishers, hornbills, and allies
  • Screamers and ducks
    • White-winged Duck (Cairinascutulata)
    • Crested Shelduck (Tadornacristata)