Modeling Command and Control (C2) with Collaborative Planning Agents - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Modeling Command and Control (C2) with Collaborative Planning Agents

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  1. Modeling Command and Control (C2) with Collaborative Planning Agents JOINT SIMULATION SYSTEM Randall Hill and Jonathan Gratch University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute (310) 822-1511 {hill,gratch}@isi.edu 28-Jan-99 1

  2. Motivation • Need cost-effective ways of modeling C2 activities • Using human controllers to model lower C2 echelons is expensive • Canned scenarios are not flexible • A wide range of organizations and situations should be represented • Need realistic C2 behavior • C2 models need to make decisions that are believable to the audience • The outcomes of C2 operations need to be credible 28-Jan-99 2

  3. Hypotheses • Realistic C2 models require flexible group behavior • The key to flexible behavior is handling situation interrupts • Understand the nature of the situation and adjust behavior appropriately • Achieve goals in spite of unexpected obstacles • Flexible group behavior requires the ability to: • Understand behavior of groups of other agents • Plan a mission for groups against groups • Execute mission plan in a coordinated manner • Flexible group behavior interleaves the processes of situation awareness, planning, and execution • Flexible group behavior requires collaboration 28-Jan-99 5

  4. Research Challenges • How do the goals and plans of groups of others affect my own? • How should plans be generated for a group? • How should a plan’s execution be monitored? • When is a plan no longer achievable? • How can unachievable plans be repaired? • How should planning be coordinated among C2 agents? • How can conflicts be recognized and resolved? • How can adversarial planning be performed? 28-Jan-99 3

  5. Focus of Research • Continuous Planning • Understand behavior of groups of other agents • Maintain situation awareness of friendly and adversarial groups • Recognize when a situation does not match expectations • Plan a mission for groups against groups • Collaborate with peers and superiors • Perform adversarial reasoning • Execute mission plan in a coordinated manner • React to situation interrupts, as a team • Repair plans, when necessary, and continue executing mission • Key Issue: Re-plan when there are situation interrupts 28-Jan-99 7

  6. Focus of Research • Collaborative Behavior • Provide a framework for understanding others’ behavior • Address issues of authority & autonomy • Enable collaborative & adversarial reasoning • Provide a protocol for coordination and communication • Key issues: • Represent goals and activities of other agents • Reason about interactions / conflicts across agents • Cannot treat all plans equally • Must understand your relationship to other agents during planning • Modulate behavior of planner based on these relationships

  7. C2 Agent Architecture Domain Theory Plans Planner Current Situation Expectations Situation Awareness Radio Vision Radio Platform Commands Environment

  8. Prototype Capabilities Situation Report (understanding) Situation Report (understanding) Battalion Commander Operations Order (plan) …. Operations Order (plan) Operations Order (plan) Company A Commander Company X Commander Situation Report (understanding) Company A Company X …. Pilot Pilot Pilot Pilot Pilot Pilot Helicopter Helicopter Helicopter Helicopter Helicopter Helicopter Actions ModSAF Actions Percepts Percepts

  9. Products • C2 Agent • Continuous planner • Interleaves planning, execution, monitoring, re-planning • Collaborates with other C2 agents • Cooperate with superiors and friends, foil the enemy • C2 knowledge base (KB) • Domain theory for Attack Helicopter Battalion / Company • Domain-independent planning and collaboration KB • Intelligent Synthetic Forces • RWA-Soar pilots capable of taking direction from C2 agent 28-Jan-99 11

  10. Demonstration • Attack Helicopter Battalion (AH-64) • Battalion Commander • 3 Helicopter Companies • Company Commanders • Apache Pilots • 1 Combat Service Support Commander • Deep Attack Mission Scenario • Helicopter companies move from Assembly Area to Holding Area • Situation interrupt occurs -- unexpected enemy forces in Holding Area • Dynamically re-plan and execute mission 28-Jan-99 12