Embedded System . Embedded System. Any device that include a computer but is not itself a general purpose computer. Hardware and Software of some large system and expected to function without human intervention Respond, monitor, control external environment using sensors and actuators.
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Embedded System • Any device that include a computer but is not itself a general purpose computer. • Hardware and Software of some large system and expected to function without human intervention • Respond, monitor, control external environment using sensors and actuators.
Automobile Embedded System Today’s high-end automobile may have 100 microprocessors. • 4 bit microcontroller checks seatbelt. • Microcontroller run dashboard devices. • 16/32 bit microprocessor control engine
Characteristics of Embedded System • Sophisticated functionality. • Application dependent processors • Restricted memory. • Embedded systems have to be efficient. • These systems are dedicated towards a certain application. • Many embedded systems are hybrid systems in the sense that they include analog and digital parts. • Many embedded systems must meet real-time constraints. • Low Power
Real Time Operation • Hard Real Time • Soft Real Time
Vending Machine 8-bit microprocessors.
Nasa’s Mars Sojourner Rover 8 Bit Intel 80c85 Microprocessor
GPS Receiver 16 bit Microprocessor
Mp3 Player 32 bit RISC Microprocessor
DVD Players 32 bit RISC Microprocessor
Sony Aibo ERS-110 Robotic Dog 64- bit MIPS RISC
Type of Embedded System • Similar to General Computing - PDA, Video games, Set-top Boxes, Automatic teller m/c • Control Systems - Feed-back control of real time system. -Vehicle engines, flight control, nuclear reactors. • Signal Processing - Radar, DVD Player, Mp3 Players • Communication & Networking - Cellular Phones, Internet appliances.
Architecture Software FPGA Memory Sensor CPU Actuator A/D D/A Human Interface Diagnostics Tool
How to Implement an Embedded System Hardware - Processing Element - Peripherals * Input & Output * Interfacing Sensors & Actuators - Memory - Bus Software -System Software -Application Software
Processing elements • General Purpose Microprocessor & Microcontroller • DSP • Application Specific Processor • System- on – Chip (SOC)
Challenges in Embedded System Design • How much hardware do we need? - What is word size of the CPU? Size of Memory? • How do we meet our dead lines? - Faster hardware or cleverer software? • How do we minimize power? -Turn off unnecessary Logic. Reduce memory access.
Embedded Hardware Receive input --- Process it --- Provide Output Microprocessor & Microcontrollers. - Energy Efficiency - High Code density.
Microprocessors • CPU for Computer • No RAM,ROM, I/O on chip itself • Example Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0 CPU General Purpose Microprocessor RAM ROM I/O Timer Serial Port
What is Microcontroller • Basically a microcontroller is a device which integrates a large number of components of a microprocessor system onto a single microchip. • A microcontroller combines on to the same microchip - The CPU core - Memory (both ROM and RAM) - Some parallel digital I/O & more.
Microcontroller CPU Memory I/O BUS
Components of a Microcontroller • A Timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform task for certain time periods. • A Serial I/O ports to allow data to flow between the microcontroller and other devices such as a Pc or another microcontroller. • An ADC to allow the microcontroller to accept analog input data to processing.
Microcontroller Block Program Memory Parallel port Parallel Port Timer Data Memory Serial port Serial port Core Parallel port
Why Microcontroller? • Low cost, Small packaging • Low power consumption • Programmable , re-programmable • Easy integration with circuits • For applications in which cost, power and space are critical. • Single purpose.