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第五章:句子翻译技巧(下). 教学目的:要求熟练理解句子的翻译技巧,从而在英汉翻译时做到通顺、准确。 教学内容: 重译法 语态变换法 词序调整法 拆译法 翻译练习. the change of the voices ( 语态变换法).

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第五章:句子翻译技巧(下)
  • 教学目的:要求熟练理解句子的翻译技巧,从而在英汉翻译时做到通顺、准确。
  • 教学内容:
    • 重译法
    • 语态变换法
    • 词序调整法
    • 拆译法
    • 翻译练习
the change of the voices
the change of the voices(语态变换法)

Among the eight translation techniques, there exist one called “the change of the voices”. Actually, the passive voice is more commonly used in English than in Chinese, especially in the writing of science and technology. In the sentences in which the doers are not necessarily told or known, the passive voice is used. And sometimes for the sake of connection of the context, there occurs the passive voice. Since the passive structure seldom appears in Chinese, many passive sentences in English have to be turned into active sentences in Chinese. In fact, a translator tries to render the passive sentences into Chinese active sentences as many as possible. But the version must be made idiomatic and smooth, not ambiguous or abstruse. This is a problem which is worth our attention.

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A . 把被动语态译成汉语被动句

1) The company was enjoined from using false advertising.

这家商号被禁止使用虚假广告。

2) Up to now, sulphur dioxide has been regarded as one of the most serious of these

pollutants.

到目前为止,二氧化硫一直被看作是这些污染物中最严重的一种。

TIP:当句中不出现行为主体时,有时可以在谓语前使用“被”字来表示被动意义

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TIP: 在行为主体前使用“被”、“由”、“受”、“给”等字,在这类句子中,在“被”、“由”、“受”、“给”等字后面,在动词前面,有一个名词作为该动词的逻辑主语。

3) All around, the hill were black with oil, and some were hidden by gas and drifting oil spray.

四周,由于蒙上了一层油,山峦是黑色的,有的山峦则被天然气和在风中飘洒的喷油遮挡住了。

4) The thrust force of an airplane is produced by the propeller.

飞机的推力由螺旋桨所产生。

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使用“是……的”表语结构;或“为……所”句型,侧重说明一件事情是怎样做或什么时候、什么地点做的等等。例如:使用“是……的”表语结构;或“为……所”句型,侧重说明一件事情是怎样做或什么时候、什么地点做的等等。例如:

5) Poets are born, but orators are made.

诗人是天生的,而演说家则是后天造就的。

6). Footprints on the sands of time are not made by sitting down.

沙滩上的足迹是走出来的。(喻“不身体力行不足以成事”)

7). In his late thirties he was almost knocked down in his despondency of the unsuccessful career.

近四十岁时,由于事业上的挫折,他几乎为失意所毁。

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8) The laws of motion will be discussed in the next articles.

运动定律将在下文中予以讨论。

9) . These signals is used to indicate which data is to be read into the CPU.

这些信号用来指示哪些数据是(将)读入CPU。

10). The feature of ENIAC can be summed up in one word: huge.

ENIAC 的特点可用一个字——“大”来概括。

Tip: 使用“加以”、“予以”或“用…来” 字样 表达被动含义。

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B . 把被动语态译成汉语主动句

Tip:当英语被动句中的主语是无生命的名词,而且句中一般没有由介词by引导的行为主体时,这种句子常常可译成汉语的主动句,而不需加什么词。

1). His pride must be pinched.

他这股傲气应该打下去。

2).The result of the invention of the stream engine was that human power was replaced by mechanical power.

蒸汽机发明的结果是,机械力代替了人力。

当被动句中有地点状语,由介词“by”引导的方式状语以及“from”等表示的其它状语时,有时可把这种状语译成主语,将介词省略,而把原主语译成宾语,这样,就更符合汉语的习惯。如例2

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C. 把被动语态译成汉语无主句

1). Wrongs must be righted when they are discovered.

发现了错误一定要改正(纠正)。

2). If water is heated, the molecules move more quickly.

如果把水加热,水分子就运动得更快。

  • 英语中以it 做形式主语,以被动语态作谓语,其后跟一个由that引导的主语从句的结构很多。这种结构在译成汉语时,除把it一律省略外,通常有两种处理方法:
  • 在被动语态前加“人们”、“有人”、“我们”、“大家”等词
  • 用“据……”等短语译出

D. 习惯译法

1). It’s believed that her plans for a movie career had all been merely a pipe dream.

有人说她那些当明星的计划全都是些非非遐想罢了。

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It must be realized that…

必须了解(认识、明白)

  • It is said that…

据说;一般认为

  • It is suggested that…

有人建议

It is generally accepted that…

一般认为;大家公认

  • It is alleged that…

人们断言

  • It is asserted that…

有人主张(断定)

  • It is understood that…

人们理解;不用说

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It must be kept in mind that…

必须记住

  • It is known that…

众所周知;大家知道

  • It has been objected that…

有人反驳

  • It is predicted that…

据估计;据预计

  • It is reported that…

据报道;据报告说

  • It is believed that…

据信;人们(大家)相信

  • It is claimed that…

有人(人们)主张;人们要求

  • It is declared that…

据宣称;人们宣称

  • It cannot be denied that…

不可否认

  • It is estimated that…

据估计(推算)

  • It has been found that…

已经发现;实践证明

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1. The dockers were seen unloading the chemical fertilizer from S.S. “Apollo”.

2. The Finnish Trade Mission was given a warm welcome by their counterparts.

3. Our reasonable price has already been accepted by Sears, which will lead to further business.

4.今天邀大家来开座谈会,目的是要和大家交换意见, ……

5.只有你方把现有订货量增至我们所确定的最低数字,我们才能供货。

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1.有人看见码头工人正从“阿波罗”号轮船卸化肥。1.有人看见码头工人正从“阿波罗”号轮船卸化肥。

2.芬兰贸易代表团受到同行们的热烈欢迎。

3.我方合理的价格已由西尔斯公司接受,这样可促成更多的贸易。

4.You have been invited to this forum today to exchange ideas on……

5. We will not be able to dispatch your shipment until your order is large enough to qualify our minimum requirement in size.