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Distributed File Systems. Group A5 Amit Sharma Dhaval Sanghvi Ali Abbas. Outline. What is a DFS Requirements of a DFS Sun Network File System History Architecture Protocols Implementation. Basics. File: named collection of logically related data

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distributed file systems

Distributed File Systems

Group A5

Amit Sharma

Dhaval Sanghvi

Ali Abbas

outline
Outline
  • What is a DFS
  • Requirements of a DFS
  • Sun Network File System
    • History
    • Architecture
    • Protocols
    • Implementation
basics
Basics
  • File: named collection of logically related data
    • Unix file: an uninterpreted sequence of bytes
  • File system:
    • Provides a logical view of data and storage functions
    • User-friendly interface
    • Provides facility to create, modify, organize, and delete files
    • Provides sharing among users in a controlled manner
    • Provides protection
what is a dfs
What is a DFS
  • A distributed implementation of time sharing model of a file system, where multiple users share files and storage resources.
  • Overall storage space managed by a DFS consists of different, remotely located, smaller storage spaces.
requirements
Requirements
  • Transparency:
    • Access transparency
    • Location transparency
    • Mobility transparency
    • Failure transparency
    • Performance transparency
other requirements
Other Requirements
  • Scaling
  • Security
  • Hardware and operating System heterogeneity
sun s network file system
Sun’s Network File System
  • Introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1985
  • Sun published the protocol and licensed reference implementation
  • Since then, NFS has been supported by every Unix variant
nfs design objectives
NFS design objectives
  • Machine and OS independence, no recompilation of applications
  • Crash recovery
  • Transparent access
  • Reasonable performance (comparable to local FS)
nfs the basic idea
NFS - The basic idea
  • allow an arbitrary collection of clients and servers to share a common file system
  • In most cases all clients and servers are on the same LAN
  • each machine can be both a client and a server
  • Each NFS server exports one or more of its directories for access by remote clients
nfs the basic idea cont
NFS - The basic idea (cont.)
  • When a directory is made available, so are all of its subdirectories.
    • whole directory trees are exported by NFS as a unit
  • The list of exported directories a server exports is maintained in the /etc/exports file
  • Uses RPC / XDR
nfs how do we get the files
NFS - How do we get the files
  • Mount protocol
    • access shared file systems by mounting them from an NFS server machine.
    • Where? at mount point
    • Mount point? -an empty directory or subdirectory, created as place to attach a remote file system.
how do we get the files cont
How do we get the files (cont.)
  • server returns a file handle to the client.
  • The file handle contains fields uniquely identifying
        • the file system type (ext2, vfat, Novell, BSD, NeXTSTEP..)
        • the disk
        • the i-node number of the directory
        • and security information
how do we get the files cont1
How do we get the files (cont.)
  • The server daemons:
    • nfsd: The NFS Daemon which services requests from NFS clients.
    • mountd: The NFS Mount Daemon which actually carries out requests that nfsd passes on to it.
    • portmap: The portmapper daemon which allows NFS clients to find out which port the NFS server is using.
slide15
VFS
  • VFS allows diverse specific file systems to coexist in a file tree, isolating all FS-dependencies in pluggable filesystem modules.
  • VFS was an internal kernel restructuring with no effect on the syscall interface.
  • VFS layer maintains a table with one entry for each open file
vfs 2
VFS 2
  • VFS layer has an entry called a v-node (virtual i-node).
  • for every open file, V-nodes are used to tell whether the file is local or remote.
  • A V-node points to either an i-node, when the file is on the local disk, or an r-node in the NFS Client code, when the reference is to data on a remote disk.
  • all state information on the open files is stored on the client's side.
vnode use
Vnode use
  • To mount a remote file system, the system admn (or /etc/rc) calls the mount program
  • Kernel constructs vnode for remote directory and asks NFS-client code to create an r-node in its internal tables. Vnode in client VFS will point to local I-node or r-node.
nfs implementation
NFS implementation
  • Servers are stateless: Each request has complete information – does not rely on previous state. i.e. idempotent
    • User’s identity must be verified for each request
    • Most UNIX system calls are supported except for open and close
idempotent
Idempotent
  • idem·po·tent
  • Pronunciation: 'I -d&m-"pO-t&nt
  • Date: 1870
  • : relating to or being a mathematical quantity which when applied to itself under a given binary operation (as multiplication) equals itself;
  • also : relating to or being an operation under which a mathematical quantity is idempotent
semantics of file sharing
Semantics of file sharing
  • On a single processor, when a read follows a write, the value returned by the read is the value just written.
  • In a distributed system with caching,obsolete values may be returned.
semantics of file sharing1

Method

Comment

UNIX semantics

Every operation on a file is instantly visible to all processes

Session semantics

No changes are visible to other processes until the file is closed

Immutable files

No updates are possible; simplifies sharing and replication

Transaction

All changes occur atomically

Semantics of file sharing
  • NFS implements session semantics
caching
Caching
  • The cache consistency problem: cached data may become stale if cached data is updated elsewhere in the network.
  • NFS solution:
    • Timestamp invalidation. Timestamp each cache entry, and periodically query the server: “has this file changed since time t?”; invalidate cache if stale.
nfs client caching
NFS Client Caching
  • Where? -in main memory of clients
  • What? - file blocks, translation of file names to vnodes, and attributes of files and directories.
  • (1) File blocks- time stamp of file (when last modified on the server).
    • After certain age, blocks have to be validated with server
    • delay writing policy: modified blocks flushed to server after certain delay
nfs client caching1
NFS Client Caching
    • Clients do not free delayed-write blocks until the server confirms that the data have been written to disk.
  • (2) Caching of file names to vnodes for remote directory access
    • speeds up the lookup procedure
  • (3) Caching of file and directory attributes
    • updated when new attributes received from server, discarded after certain time
nfs client caching2
NFS Client Caching
  • Writes:
    • block marked dirty and scheduled for flushing.
    • flushing: when file is closed, or a sync occurs at client.
  • What if multiple clients write to same file at the same time?
    • Can get either version (or parts of both). Completely arbitrary. Just like normal Unix
  • Problem: Writes from clients So if writes happen at time t and close happens at t’ then other clients might not see new data till t’
cache validation
Cache validation
  • Validation check performed :
    • at file open
    • whenever server contacted to get new block
    • after timeout (3s for file blocks, 30s for directories)
  • Done for all files (even if not being shared).
  • Expensive!
    • Potentially, every 3 sec get file attributes.
    • If needed invalidate all blocks.
locking in nfs

Operation

Description

Lock

Creates a lock for a range of bytes (non-blocking_

Lockt

Test whether a conflicting lock has been granted

Locku

Remove a lock from a range of bytes

Renew

Renew the lease on a specified lock

Locking in NFS
  • NFS supports file locking
      • Applications can use locks to ensure consistency
      • Locking was not part of NFS until version 3
      • NFS v4 supports locking as part of the protocol (see above table)
nfs score card
NFS score card
  • Pros:
    • simple
    • highly portable
  • Cons:
    • Not Secure
    • Locking is not good
    • Sometimes inconsistent
    • Clients maintain 2 caches, one for file attributes (i-nodes) and one for file data. Caching can be nasty
summary
Summary
  • How do we make it fast?
    • Answer: caching, read-ahead
  • How do we make it reliable? What if a message is dropped? What if the server crashes?
    • Answer: client retransmits request until it receives a response.
  • How do we preserve file system semantics in the presence of failures and/or sharing by multiple clients?
    • Answer: well, we don’t, at least not completely.
alternatives to nfs
Alternatives to NFS
  • Andrew File System - CMU, now IBM
  • Sprite
  • Coda
  • Distributed File System
  • Remote File System
  • Netware - Novell based file system