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THE CHURCH IN THE 15TH CENTURY: HUMANISM, CHRISTIANITY AND CHRISTIAN HUMANISM. From last time…. 1296-1303: Boniface VIII against Philip the Fair (IN the mid.) 1309-1378: Pope in France Avignonese Captivity, NOT in the mid.) 1378-1414: multi-Pope period! (NOT in the mid.)

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From last time

  • 1296-1303: Boniface VIII against Philip the Fair (IN the mid.)

  • 1309-1378: Pope in France Avignonese Captivity, NOT in the mid.)

  • 1378-1414: multi-Pope period! (NOT in the mid.)

  • 1414-1417: Constance, the end of the multi-Pope, the Pope’s setback, new heresies (NOT in the mid.)

Pro pope anti pope

Jesus chose Peter and his successors as rulers of the Church CHRISTIAN HUMANISM

Peter was Bishop of Rome

Every Pope, elected with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, is Bishop of Rome

Every Pope is successor of Peter and as such ruler of the Church!

Jesus chose ALL the Apostles, not just Peter

Peter was NOT in Rome most of his life

Popes are elected ‘wrongly’

We cannot say that 1) Peter is in charge, and even if that were the case, 2) the Pope is Peter’s successor

Pro-Pope, Anti-Pope

Now paper from rags actually invented in china it became popular in europe by the end of 14th c
…now paper from rags! (actually invented in China, it became popular in Europe by the end of 14th c.)

Consequences of the technological innovations
Consequences of the technological innovations: automatic!

  • Books are cheaper, and therefore more widely available

  • Less time to copy, more time to think!

Humanism what is it look at the source
Humanism: what is it? Look at the source…. automatic!

  • Refocusing on learning: ‘studies…promise you enormous prizes both in the conduct of your life and for the fame and glory of your name’

  • Refocusing of ‘old learning’: the ‘knowledge of letters…the more searching and profound kind’: Cicero & c. The motto of the Humanists was ‘Ad fontes’, which means ‘to the sources’

  • Attention to ‘poets, orators and historians’

  • No law, as in ‘no practical studies’!

No here are some issues we will take into consideration
NO: Here are some issues we will take into consideration: automatic!

  • Biblical philology

  • ‘Ad Fontes’ applied to Christianity

  • ‘Devotio Moderna’ and Northern European Humanism

  • Erasmus from Rotterdam

The bible old testament
The Bible: Old Testament (1440)

  • Hebrew Text (difficult to date, some books from the 6th century BC but older versions have been found in the fragments contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls)

  • Greek Text (I-II century BC, called ‘Septuagint’, partially different than the Hebrew

  • Latin Text, IV century A.D., translated from the Greek and from the Hebrew by Jerome (“Vulgata”)

The bible new testament
The Bible: New Testament (1440)

  • Original Greek text, I century AD

  • ‘Vetus Latina’, I century AD

  • St.Jerome’s ‘Vulgata’, IV century AD

The main source was jerome s vulgata which contained some mistakes
The main source was Jerome’s ‘Vulgata’, which contained some mistakes:

  • Exodus 34: in the Hebrew Moses is described as descending from Mount Sinai in a path of light: Jerome misunderstood and wrote that Moses came down with a pair of horns in his head!

Moses with horns
…Moses with horns: contained some mistakes:

Michelangelo, Moses, 1513-6, St.Peter in Chains, Rome

Jerome s mistakes in new testament
Jerome’s mistakes in New Testament: contained some mistakes:

  • Matthew 3:22: the passage on John the Baptist crying to the people to ‘repent’.

  • Jerome translated it as ‘do penance’, or ‘perform confession’, thus legitimating the sacrament of confession

  • The exact translation was ‘repent’, or ‘come to your senses’: no mention of confession!

Another of jerome s mistakes
Another of Jerome’s mistakes: contained some mistakes:

  • The greeting of the Angel Gabriel to Mary was translated by Jerome as ‘gratia plena’, or ‘full of grace’

  • The exact translation was: ‘gracious’

  • Important implications there: was Mary invested with the ‘grace of God’, which would make her a ‘saint-like’ figure, or was she just ‘gracious’?

All these mistakes fixed by erasmus
All these mistakes fixed by Erasmus: contained some mistakes:

  • In 1516 he published a critical edition of the New Testament: what is a critical edition?

  • What did Erasmus’ text look like?

Erasmus new testament 1516
Erasmus’ ‘New Testament’, 1516 contained some mistakes:

Partial conclusions
Partial conclusions: contained some mistakes:

  • The relation between Humanism and Christianity: you can apply the same care for learning to religion

  • Biblical philology means that you can actually read the pure and original message of Christ

  • Erasmus important in that!

Example dutch history bible 1430s
Example: Dutch History Bible, 1430s contained some mistakes: