A52A-04. Aged Volcanic Clouds. Are they an aviation hazard and why?. Bill Rose, * Patricia Nadeau , Simon Carn Michigan Technological University David Schneider USGS Alaska Volcano Observatory. Aircraft Hazards. Volcanic clouds generally end up in the lower stratosphere
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Volcanic clouds over western Montana on 7/18/2008 (photo by Margaret Patton, Research Office, Montana Tech of The University of Montana)
Okmok July 12 plume seen from 28,000 ft over Billings, Montana from the cockpit of a commercial passenger flight on the evening of 7/19/2008. (Image courtesy of Bradley Johnson and Alaska Airlines)
July 12, 2008
August 7, 2008
New cone at Okmok – September 15, 2008
Image courtesy of AVO/USGS
(Photo by Christina Neal)
Kasatochi - October 23, 2008
Image courtesy of Jerry Morris
* These are likely minimums for total encounters
Courtesy of Scott Bachmeier, U. Wisconsin, Madison
SOLVE (ozone study) campaign flight with array of atmospheric sampling instruments, including:
Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer
Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe
DACOM IR Laser Spectrometer
Rose, W. I., et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20206
Beyond SO2 and H2SO4, cloud chemistry included many volcanogenic species that could potentially be hazardous to aircraft and passengers
A-Train views of the Kasatochi cloud on August 10
OMI SO2 - 21:35 UT
CALIPSO Backscatter – 21:28 UT
Solid particles at 11 km alt.
Scanning electron photomicrographs of material collected from the leading edge of the wing of a commercial aircraft that encountered the Kasatochi volcanic cloud at around 0100 UTC on August 11, 2008 over the Yukon region.
Images courtesy of AVO/USGS. Images were taken on the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Advanced Instrumentation Laboratory
A-Train views of the Kasatochi cloud on August 15
OMI SO2 - 11:55 UT
CALIPSO 2:22 UT
CARIBIC flight (LH759) - 4:00-6:00 UT – 11.6 km alt.
Kasatochi cloud encounter in Europe (CARIBIC) found <2.6 - 17.8 ng/m3 of Si, equivalent to 15 - 100 ng/m3 of ash and 243 - 399 ng/m3 of S, equivalent to 500 - 800 ng/m3 of SO2 (Prof. Bengt G. Martinsson Div. Nuclear Physics, Lund University)
These are equivalent to 0.005 to 0.1 μg/m3 ashand 0.1 to 0.25 ppbv of SO2
The much younger Hekla cloud had significantly higher values: 1-10 μg /m3 ashand 1 ppmv SO2
The differences are partly explained by the much greater age of the Kasatochi cloud (8 days vs. 1.5 days for Hekla)
What we know:
What we don’t know:
Locations of SO2 clouds (OMI)
Cloud heights (CALIPSO)
Minor amounts of ash persist for days
Hekla plume components
What are damage/danger thresholds for volcanic cloud constituents? (e.g., SO2 and sulfate)
Effect of exposure time?
Health risks for passengers on board?
We would like to thank everyone who helped with and contributed to this presentation, including Bengt Martinsson and the CARIBIC project, AVO/USGS, Kristi Wallace, Marianne Guffanti, the SOLVE campaign, and Richard Honrath