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European Astroparticle Physics
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  1. European Astroparticle Physics Status and Vision Christian Spiering, DESY Open Symposium European Strategy Preparatory Group Krakow, Sept. 11, 2012

  2. Overview ASPERA Roadmap • Large underground detectors • Dark matter searches • WIMPs • Axions • Mass and nature of neutrinos: 0 • Cosmic ray physics and the LHC

  3. 1 Overview ASPERA Roadmap Three categories: • Medium scale, ongoing/extension • Large scale (few hundred M€), mid of decade • Very large scale (several hundred M€ to G€), end of decade

  4. Medium scale • Advanced detectors for gravitational waves • discovery in next 5 years highly probable • Entirely new window to Universe • Dark Matter  see below • Neutrino properties  see below • Support Underground Labs (urgent: LSM extension!) A few to several tens of sources per year Adv Virgo/ Adv LIGO Virgo/LIGO “We prioritize these projects for immediate funding, and urge agencies to join their forces for an effective, substantial support” • impressing momentum which needs to be maintained; • enter a region with high discovery potential; • hand in hand with LHC physics; • technologically ready and worldwide community

  5. Large scale, mid of decade • TeV gamma-ray astrophysics: CTA • worldwide priority project of gamma astronomy • ~200M€, 2 sites (N/S), start construction 2014 • High energy neutrinos: KM3NeT • See the talk on oscillations and IceCube/PINGU & KM3NeT/ORCA • High energy cosmic rays: 30,000 km² ground based array • Closely related to fixed target and LHC physics, see below • Low energy neutrinos & p-decay: LAGUNA •  see below • Somewhere between category 2 and 3

  6. Large scale, mid of decade • TeV gamma-ray astrophysics: CTA • worldwide priority project of gamma astronomy • ~200M€, 2 sites (N/S), start construction 2014 • High energy neutrinos: KM3NeT • See the talk on oscillations and IceCube/PINGU & KM3NeT/ORCA • High energy cosmic rays: 30,000 km² ground based array • Closely related to fixed target and LHC physics, see below • Low energy neutrinos & p-decay: LAGUNA •  see below • Somewhere between category 2 and 3 10 fold sensitivity of current instruments 10 fold energy range ~1000 sources and new phenomena expected 25 countries, 132 institutes,800 scientists

  7. Large scale, mid of decade • TeV gamma-ray astrophysics: CTA • worldwide priority project of gamma astronomy • ~200M€, 2 sites (N/S), start construction 2014 • High energy neutrinos: KM3NeT • See the talk on oscillations and IceCube/PINGU & KM3NeT/ORCA • High energy cosmic rays: 30,000 km² ground based array • Closely related to fixed target and LHC physics, see below • Low energy neutrinos & p-decay: LAGUNA •  see below • Somewhere between category 2 and 3

  8. Large scale, mid of decade • TeV gamma-ray astrophysics: CTA • worldwide priority project of gamma astronomy • ~200M€, 2 sites (N/S), start construction 2014 • High energy neutrinos: KM3NeT • See the talk on oscillations and IceCube/PINGU & KM3NeT/ORCA • High energy cosmic rays: 30,000 km² ground based array • Closely related to fixed target and LHC physics, see below • Low energy neutrinos & p-decay: LAGUNA •  see below • Somewhere between category 2 and 3 • IceCube providing data with unprecedented quality and statistics! 2 events with 1-2 PeVenergy First extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos? • Strong scientific case for a Northern detector, but with substantially larger sensitivity than IceCube. • Pool resources in single design for a large research infrastructure. ~250 M€ • Start of construction in 2014 (~40 M€ available). • IceCube, ANTARES /KM3NeT, GVD-Baikal  future Global Neutrino Observatory.

  9. Large scale, mid of decade • TeV gamma-ray astrophysics: CTA • worldwide priority project of gamma astronomy • ~200M€, 2 sites (N/S), start construction 2014 • High energy neutrinos: KM3NeT • See the talk on oscillations and IceCube/PINGU & KM3NeT/ORCA • High energy cosmic rays: 30,000 km² ground based array • Closely related to fixed target and LHC physics, see below • Low energy neutrinos & p-decay: LAGUNA •  see below • Somewhere between category 2 and 3 • Understanding the high-energy Universe • Sources of cosmic rays • Indirect dark matter search • Exotic particle physics • Test basic physics principles

  10. Very large scale, 2020 horizon Cost scale of a billion LAGUNA-type infrastructure including beam would fall in this category (see the talks of next session) • Next generation Dark Energy surveys • LSST at ground • EUCLID in space • Next generation graviational wave antennas • Einstein Telescope ET underground • eLISA/NGO in space

  11. 2 Neutrino Astrophysics, Neutrino Physics and Search for Proton Decay with Deep Underground Detectors

  12. Physics case • Proton decay • Test further classes of SUSY models with tenfold sensitivity • Galactic Supernova • Bonanza for astrophysics and particle physics • Incredibly detailed information on early SN phase and explosion mechanism • Solar neutrinos: details of solar model with percent accuracy • Metallicity problem   from CNO cycle  burning of heavy stars • Time variations on the 10-3 level • Transition vacuum/matter oscillations • Geoneutrinos • What generates the heat of the Earth (about 30-50% due to U/Th decays). • Howmuch U, howmuchTh? Crust, mantel? (Reactor inside Earth?) • Diffuse backgroundofpast Supernova • „average“ SN spectrum, star formation rate, „failed“ supernova • Indirectdark matter search • Oscillation physics: see talks of Hernandez, Zito and Hagner, …

  13. LAGUNA MEMPHYS 600 kton water LENA 50 kt scintillator 50 m GLACIER 100 kton liquid argon

  14. Low energy!

  15. Recommendation:large underground detectors The SAC notes the high costs for the creation of underground laboratories on the one hand, and the unique capabilities of large neutrino detectors in particle physics (proton decay) and astroparticle physics (supernova, solar neutrinos, dark matter, geo-neutrinos) on the other hand. The SAC concludes that the program with neutrino beams must be flanked by a strong astroparticle program to justify the high investment. It is important to note that the astroparticle physics topics will be the decision driver for a good part of the community and that therefore the astroparticle physics potential of different options should be considered when examining the overall coherence of a global program. There is an opportunity for a common program on both accelerator based neutrino physics and astro-particle physics that will have more impact than the sum of its parts. We recommend therefore that: • CERN and the national agencies, as well as ApPEC, should support a vigorous R&D program on neutrino detectors (e.g. liquid argon) and beam design studies (e.g. a neutrino beam to Pyhäsalmi), in anticipation of a critical decision in 2015. • ApPEC supports the astroparticle physics program that will profit from the synergy with the accelerator-based program (e.g. a liquid scintillation detector in Pyhäsalmi) as well as medium scale astroparticle physics detectors(including feasibility studies for high-density infills of high-energy neutrino telescopes) which can in principle determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and other neutrino parameters. • Given the obvious worldwide interest and the high project costs, it is recommended that CERN, together with key European agencies and ApPEC, enter into discussions with their US and Asian counterparts in order to develop a coherent international strategy for this field, including relevant astroparticle physics issues.

  16. Veto region Target 5 kt 2 m 22.5m Large Underground Neutrino Detectors:Community Input • #11 Conclusions of NUTURN Workshop, May 2012 • # 24: Realistic next-generation nucleon decay and neutrino expt. Capable to probe leptonic CP violation • # 45: Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics Program of JINR and Russian Institutes : BaksanLSc 5-50 kt • 5 kt option: geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos, SN neutrinos • 50 kt option: full LENA program • #70: LENA • #74 LAGUNA-LBNO: CN2PY (Cern to Pyhäsalmi): an opportunity of particle and astroparticle neutrino and GUT physics • #86 Hyper-Kamiokande

  17. 3 Dark Matter Searches

  18. Physicscase

  19. ParticleCandidates

  20. Methodstosearchfor (SUSY) WIMPs indirect direct LHC  IceCube, Antares  HESS/MAGIC/VERITAS Agile, Fermi e/p balloon exp.s, Pamela, Fermi, AMS e+/p

  21. Snapshot Summer 2012

  22. Synergyofdirect, indirectand LHC searches • Direct searches will improve sensitivity by a factor of 100 over the next 5-7 years • Indirect searches with IceCube will improve sensitivity by a factor 10-20 • AMS results: looking forward to data release end of the year! • LHC 7  LHC 14: factor 300-1000

  23. Synergyofdirect, indirectand LHC searches Taken from Gaitskill 2011 • Direct searches will improve sensitivity by a factor of 100 over the next 5-7 years • Indirect searches with IceCube will improve sensitivity by a factor 10-20 • AMS results: looking forward to data release end of the year! • LHC 7  LHC 14: factor 300-1000

  24. Synergyofdirect, indirectand LHC searches • Direct searches will improve sensitivity by a factor of 100 over the next 5-7 years • Indirect searches with IceCube will improve sensitivity by a factor 10-20 • AMS results: looking forward to data release end of the year! • LHC 7  LHC 14: factor 500-1000

  25. Recommendations WIMP Dark Matter • With the advent of the LHC and thanks to a new generation of astroparticle experiments using directand indirect detection methods, the SUSY-WIMP dark matter hypothesis will be proven or disproven within the next 5-10 years. • Stormy progress of LXe technology. XENON100 with record limits. XENON1T under construction. • LAr technology attracts new interest using argon depleted in 39Ar.Potential of technology will be demonstrated by DarkSide-50 (50 kt, LNGS, end 2012). • SAC recommends that DARWIN (target mass of noble liquids up to 10-20 tons) is pursued and supported. Choice of double-target options after demonstration of LAr capabilities. Other potential capabilities of DARWIN: solar  in real time, 0 decay with 136 Xe. • Bolometric approach remained (nearly) competitive with noble liquids in sensitivity. EDELWEISS (Ge), CRESST (CaWO4 ). CDMS in US. Need cross-check of possible signals in noble liquids! • SAC supports development of EURECA (~1 ton sensitive mass) and the on-going cooperation with the CDMS follow-up projects. • SAC supports R&D on directional detection, as a confirmation of the galactic character of potential positive detection by high-density target detectors • SAC supports improving DAMA/LIBRA w.r.t. lower threshold and lower background to better understand the modulation. Fully independent experiment of same/similar technology is crucial.

  26. Axions • SAC recommendations: Although not all approaches in this field are strictly related to dark matter, all have the potential for revealing new physics. A CAST follow-up is discussed as part of CERN‘s physics landscape (new magnets, new cryogenic and X-ray devices). SAC supports R&D on this followp up, as well as smaller ongoing activities on the search for axions and axion-like particles. • Input from the community: Fundmental physics at low energies – the quest for axions and other new light particles

  27. Axions • Experimentally excluded • Astronomy constraints • Cosmology constraints • Sensitivity of planned experiments Parameter space for axions or axion-like particles CAST IAXO: CAST follow-up 10T magnets, 16m low-BG/threshold X-ray detectors 50-100 M€

  28. Further community Input Dark Matter Search Super-WIMPs • #127 Boyarsky, Ruchayskiy, Shaposhnikov: „Searching for Dark Matter“ • no sign of WIMPs from LHC and direct detection • Super-weakly interacting DM candidates (Super-WIMPs) • Detectable via decays  sharp X-ray line • Need X-ray spectrometer with E/E  10-3, limited imaging capabilities • Such a mission will not materialize within the astrophysical community itself but requires strong support by particle physics community

  29. 4 Mass and Nature of the Neutrino Here: Double-Beta decay. Direct mass measurement: see talk of Hamish Robertson

  30. Physics case • Majorana vs Dirac • mass & mass hierarchy Physics beyond SM Essential for Leptogenesis

  31. KKGH claim GERDA, EXO200, SNO+ CUORE, SuperNEMO Ton-scale Physics case • Majorana vs Dirac • mass & mass hierarchy Price tag for ton-scale 50-150 M€.

  32. Recommendations 0 decay • Data taking of new generation 0 has started: Kamland-Zen (Japan), EXO (US), GERDA, Cuore-0 (Europe): Degenerateregion • CUORE (start 2014) will probe part of Inverted Hierarchy region. • Discovery on degenerate level  path to precision measurement with 3 different nuclei and the unique capabilities provided by SuperNEMO. • GERDA/CUORE/SuperNEMO build on long experience and validation with precursors. • NEXT: new approach, steep time gradient. SAC encourages coll. To demonstrate all aspects of technology/physics capability and to move ahead toward NEXT-100 (see input paper on NEXT). • SAC recommends a phased experimental approach towards ton-scale masses with a sensitivity exploring fully the mass range predicted by oscillation experiments for the Inverted Hierarchy. • SAC supports R&D towards new promising technologies (scintillating bolometers, pixel detectors, ….) in view of final assessment of most effective approach towards ton-scale • SAC encourages companies and labs to continue R&D on new techniques for isotope separation. • High cost of ton-scale  realisation within worldwide collaborations, as e.g. pursued by GERDA and MAJORANA.

  33. 5 Cosmic Ray Physics and the LHC

  34. Cosmic Rays

  35. Cosmic Rays and LHC accelerators airshower arrays satellites, balloons Auger

  36. Cosmic Rays and LHC LHC provides a significant lever arm providingconstraints for UHECR simulations ! accelerators Currentmodels tunedhere airshower arrays satellites, balloons Auger

  37. Cosmic Rays and LHC pp inel. crosssectionatsqrt(s)=57 TeV • Test Glauber model • Tune EAS simulations

  38. Models anddata: rapiditydistribution • LHC detectors cover all wide rapidity range • EAS models bracket accelerator data • no model perfect, but EAS models seem to do better than HEP models • HEPHigh Energy Physics models • EASExtensive Air Shower models

  39. Anotherexample Extreme muonmultiplicities • High-multiplicity cosmic event in ALICE  • Density of ~18 muons/m2 (within the TPC volume) • Similar enigmas in underground experiments • Muon numbers in EAS about 50-100% higher than MC predictions •  Upgrade EAS experiments with muon counters Fe EPOS p QGSJet N19 ~ N Auger

  40. Cosmic Rays and LHC: Summary • Cooperation of particle- and CR-physicists has been intensified over the last years. • This is extremely useful for understanding CR nature; accelerator data already helped improving shower models. • Tools of CR community may also help better understanding HE particle interactions: bulk LHC data are well described by EAS models, sometimes even better than by HEP models • Need common approach to understand muons in CR. • NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment): important input data for cosmic ray and neutrino experiments. Submitted paper #21 for plans beyond the approved program. • Establishing an „Astroparticle Physics Forum“ at CERN would intensify co-operation and synergies.

  41. Summary • Dark Matter: • close synergy “direct – indirect – LHC” • Direct measurements:  …  DARWIN, EURECA • Double Beta Decay • Cover inverted hierarchy region • Phased approach to one-ton detector(s) • Nu astronomy and p-decay • Combines fundamental discovery physics and precision physics • Combines astro- and particle physics • High energy Universe • LHC  air showers • Indirect dark matter search • Test of fundamental principles • Need global approach (the higher the cost, the more urgent) • Install “Astroparticle Physics Forum” at CERN • Closer cooperation between CERN and ApPEC