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General Wave Behavior. Physics of Music, Spring 2014. Key Terms. traveling wave transverse wave longitudinal wave plane waves circular waves Huygen's principle reflection diffraction velocity frequency wavelength. What is a traveling wave ?.

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general wave behavior

General Wave Behavior

Physics of Music, Spring 2014

key terms
Key Terms

traveling wavetransverse wavelongitudinal wave

plane wavescircular wavesHuygen's principle

reflectiondiffraction

velocityfrequencywavelength

what is a traveling wave
What is a traveling wave?

A disturbance which travels through a medium, transmitting energy from the source to the observer without any net transfer of mass.

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

transverse wave
Transverse Wave

Transverse: displacement is perpendicular to direction of wave propagation

Spring image source:

http://www.factmonster.com/dk/science/encyclopedia/energy-waves.html

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

longitudinal wave
Longitudinal Wave

Longitudinal: displacement is parallel to direction of wave propagation.

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

Long. Spring image source:

http://www.factmonster.com/dk/science/encyclopedia/energy-waves.html

plane waves and circular waves
Plane waves and Circular Waves

Circular

Plane

Image sources:

(top) Berg and Stork, Physics of Sound, 3rd ed.

(bottom) UC Irvine Optics research group.

Plane  circular (diffraction!)

huygen s principle
Huygen’s Principle

A wavefront can be thought of as being composed by a large number of “wavelets”, each of which spread out spherically in time and space.

Image source: Berg and Stork, Physics of Sound, 3rd ed.

law of reflection
Law of reflection

Angle of incidence equals angle of reflection.

qi = qr

Image sources:

http://www.dl.ket.org/physics/companion/thepc/compan/Light/Light-t.htm

http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/reflectionlaw/page.html

Both angles are measured with respect to the normal

(dashed line perpendicular to the surface)

plane wave reflection and ray diagrams
Plane Wave Reflection and Ray Diagrams

normal

Ray diagram

Image source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/reflec2.html#c1

reflection from concave surface
Reflection from concave surface

Image source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/reflec2.html#c1 (left); Berg and Stork, Physics of Sound, 3rd ed. (right)

applications of reflection
Applications of Reflection?

Image source: D. Hall, Musical Acoustics (left)

diffraction
Diffraction

Narrow aperture

Tendency for waves to spread out as a result of passing by an edge (barrier or passing through a slit)

Wide aperture

Image source: http://innovativescience.blogspot.com/2011/02/diffraction.html

diffraction patterns
Diffraction Patterns

Diffraction in ripple tank

Diffraction on a MUCH larger scale.

Image sources: (top) http://scripts.mit.edu/~tsg/www/demo.php?letnum=Q%201&show=1

Bottom: http://www.suntrek.org/factary/d.shtml

slide15

Key TermsWave Mechanics: Part II

traveling wavetransverse wavelongitudinal wave

plane wavescircular wavesHuygen's principlereflectiondiffraction

velocityfrequencywavelength

a day at the beach
A Day at the Beach

Check out the plane waves!!!

travelling waves
Travelling Waves

x

Velocity (v): change in position per change in time

v= Dx/Dt

l = vT

Or…

v = lf

Frequency (f): how many times per second one particular point oscillates

Wavelength (l): spatial distance from crest-to-crest

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University

slide18

lf

t = to

Physical Parameters

[m/s] : velocity

How far a wavefront travels per unit time, Dx/Dt. Property of the medium/material.

T [s]: period

How much time elapses between generation of each pulse (wavefront)

f [Hz]: frequency

How many oscillations per second at one point in space, f = 1/T.

l [m] = wavelength

How far between two crests or two troughs

t = to+ T

l

travelling waves in ripple tank high speed video 240 fps
Travelling waves in ripple tank: high speed video (240 fps)

Ripple tank image, oblique view

Image from Arbor Scientific

speed of sound in various bulk media
Speed of Sound in Various Bulk Media

Data from: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/sound-speed-solids-d_713.html